Galaxy Formation

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Springer Science & Business Media, 2008 - Science - 735 pages
1 Review
This is the second edition of my book Galaxy Formation. Many people liked the rst edition which appeared in 1998, just before the explosion of magni cent new data which have completely changed the face of astrophysical cosmology. Many of the agonies which had to be gone through in the rst edition have disappeared and, to many people’s amazement, including mine, there is now a concordance model for cosmology, the cosmologist’s equivalent of the particle physicist’s standard model. Just like the standard model, however, the concordance model creates as many problems as it solves. This is not a cause for concern, but rather one for celebration because we are now able to ask much better and deeper questions than in the past. These questions indicate clearly the need for physics and astrophysics ‘Beyond the Concordance Model’. Theobjectofthisneweditionistobringthisamazingstoryup-to-date,verymuch inthespiritofthe rstedition.Torecapitulatesomeofthepointsmadeintheprevious prefaceabouttheoriginofthebook,IwasaskedbySpringer-Verlagtoexpandtheset of lecture notes that I prepared in 1988 for the First Astrophysics School organised by the European Astrophysics Doctoral Network into a full-length book. The set of notes was entitled Galaxy Formation and was published as a chapter of the volume Evolution of Galaxies: Astronomical Observations (eds. I. Appenzeller, H.J. Habing andP.Lena,pages1to93,Springer-VerlagBerlin,Heidelberg,1989).Inthatchapter, Iattemptedtobridgethegapbetweenelementarycosmologyandthetechnicalpapers appearing in the literature which can seem quite daunting on rst encounter. The objective was to present the physical ideas and key results as clearly as possible as an introduction and guide to the technical literature.
  

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Contents

11 PreHistory
3
12 The Galaxies and the Structure of our Galaxy
5
13 The Theory of the Expanding Universe
10
14 The Big Bang
14
15 Galaxy and Structure Formation
16
16 Hot and Cold Dark Matter
19
17 The Very Early Universe
22
21 The Spectrum and Isotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
26
117 The Basic Problem
332
121 Horizons and the Horizon Problem
335
1221 Distance and Times
339
1222 The Past Light Cone
340
1223 The Critical World Model Ω01ΩΛ 0
342
1224 The Reference World Model Ω0 03Ω Λ 07
344
123 Superhorizon Scales
347
124 The Adiabatic Baryonic Fluctuations in the Standard Big Bang
350

211 The Spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
28
212 The Isotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
29
22 The LargeScale Distribution of Galaxies
33
221 TwoPoint Correlation Functions
34
222 Walls and Voids in the Distribution of Galaxies on Large Scales
38
23 Hubbles Law and the Expansion of the Universe
44
24 Conclusion
48
31 Introduction
49
32 The Revised Hubble Sequence for Galaxies
50
33 Peculiar and Interacting Galaxies
56
34 The Light Distribution in Galaxies
59
342 Spiral and Lenticular Galaxies
61
343 Putting the Light Distributions Together
62
351 The Virial Theorem for Clusters of Stars Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies
63
352 The Rotation Curves of Spiral Galaxies
66
353 The Velocity Dispersions of Elliptical Galaxies
69
361 The FaberJackson Relation and the Fundamental Plane
70
362 Ellipticals Galaxies as Triaxial Systems
71
363 The TullyFisher Relation for Spiral Galaxies
73
364 LuminosityMetallicity Relations
74
37 The Luminosity Function of Galaxies
77
371 Aspects of the Luminosity Function of Galaxies
79
372 The Integrated Luminosity and the Mean MasstoLuminosity Ratio for Visible Matter in the Universe
83
Correlations Along the Hubble Sequence
84
39 The Red and Blue Sequences
88
391 Colour Versus Absolute Magnitude
89
393 Mean Stellar Age and Concentration Index C
91
394 The Effect of the Galaxy Environment
92
395 The New Perspective
93
310 Concluding Remark
94
41 The LargeScale Distribution of Clusters of Galaxies
95
411 The Abell Catalogues of Rich Clusters of Galaxies
96
412 Comparison with Clusters Selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
98
413 Abell Clusters and the LargeScale Distribution of Galaxies
99
421 The Galaxy Content and Spatial Distribution of Galaxies in Clusters
101
422 Clusters of Galaxies and Isothermal Gas Spheres
103
423 The Luminosity Function for Cluster Galaxies
108
424 Summary of the Properties of Rich Clusters of Galaxies
109
44 XRay Observations of Hot Gas in Clusters of Galaxies
114
45 The SunyaevZeldovich Effect in Hot Intracluster Gas
125
461 Basic Theory of Gravitational Deflections
128
462 Magnification of Images by Gravitational Lensing
130
463 Extended Deflectors
133
464 Gravitational Lensing and the Astrophysics of Galaxies
136
471 Baryonic Dark Matter
139
472 NonBaryonic Dark Matter
142
473 Astrophysical and Experimental Limits
144
The Basic Framework
147
51 The Cosmological Principle
149
52 Isotropic Curved Spaces
150
53 The SpaceTime Metric for Isotropic Curved Spaces
155
54 The RobertsonWalker Metric
158
551 The Cosmological Redshift
162
552 HubblesLaw
165
553 Angular Diameters
167
554 Apparent Intensities
168
555 Number Densities
170
56 Summary
171
61 The Principle of Equivalence
173
62 The Gravitational Redshift
176
63 The Bending of Light Rays
179
64 Further Complications
181
651 FourTensors in Relativity
184
652 What Einstein Did
187
661 The Four Tests of General Relativity
189
662 Pulsars and General Relativity
192
663 Parameterised PostNewtonian Models
195
664 Variation of the Gravitational Constant with Cosmic Epoch
197
67 Summary
198
71 Einsteins Field Equations
199
721 The Newtonian Analogue of the Friedman World Models
202
722 The Critical Density and the Density Parameter
204
723 The Dynamics of the Friedman Models with Λ 0
205
73 Friedman Models with NonZero Cosmological Constant
207
731 The Cosmological Constant and the Vacuum Energy Density
208
732 Varying the Equation of State of the Vacuum Energy
210
General Considerations
211
74 Observations in Cosmology
215
741 The Deceleration Parameter
216
742 The Cosmic TimeRedshift Relation
217
743 Distance Measures as a Function of Redshift
218
744 Angular DiameterRedshift Relations
221
745 Flux DensityRedshift Relations
223
746 The Comoving Volume Within Redshift z
226
75 Angular Diameter Distances Between Any Two Redshifts
228
76 The Flatness Problem
230
77 Inhomogeneous World Models
231
A7 The RobertsonWalker Metric for an Empty Universe
236
81 The Cosmological Parameters
241
82 Testing the Friedman Models
242
83 Hubbles Constant H0
246
84 The Age of the Universe T0
250
851 The RedshiftMagnitude Relation for the Brightest Galaxies in Clusters
252
852 The RedshiftMagnitude Relation for Radio Galaxies
254
853 The RedshiftMagnitude Relation for Type 1a Supernovae
256
854 The Number Counts of Galaxies
259
855 The Angular DiameterRedshift Test
261
86 ΩΛ and the Statistics of Gravitational Lenses
263
87 The Density Parameter Ω0
267
88 Summary
270
91 RadiationDominated Universes
271
92 The Matter and Radiation Content of the Universe
273
93 The Epoch of Recombination
277
94 The RadiationDominated Era
281
95 The Speed of Sound as a Function of Cosmic Epoch
285
96 Early Epochs
286
101 Equilibrium Abundances in the Early Universe
288
102 The Decoupling of Neutrinos and the Neutrino Barrier
290
103 The Synthesis of the Light Elements
292
104 The Abundances of the Light Elements
295
1041 Determinations of the Observed Abundances of the Light Elements
296
1042 Comparison of Theory and Observations
299
105 The Neutrino Background Temperature and the Value of χ
301
106 BaryonSymmetric Universes
303
The Development of Primordial Fluctuations Under Gravity
308
111 What the Theorists Are Trying to Do
309
1112 A Warning
312
112 The NonRelativistic Wave Equation for the Growth of Small Perturbations in the Expanding Universe
313
113 The Jeans Instability
317
1141 Small Perturbation Analysis
319
1142 Perturbing the Friedman Solutions
321
1143 Falling Poles
322
1144 The General Solution
324
115 The Evolution of Peculiar Velocities in the Expanding Universe
327
116 The Relativistic Case
331
1241 The RadiationDominated Era
352
1242 The MatterDominated Era
353
125 Dissipation Processes in the PreRecombination Era
355
126 Isothermal Perturbations
357
127 Baryonic Theories of Galaxy Formation
360
1271 The Adiabatic Scenario
361
1272 The Isothermal Scenario
363
128 What Went Wrong?
364
131 Introduction
366
132 Forms of NonBaryonic Dark Matter
369
133 WIMPs as Dark Matter Particles
370
134 Metric Perturbations and Hot and Cold Dark Matter
374
135 Free Streaming and the Damping of Hot Dark Matter Perturbations
375
136 Instabilities in the Presence of Dark Matter
377
1371 Hot Dark Matter Scenario
380
1372 Cold Dark Matter Scenario
381
138 Conclusion
384
141 The TwoPoint Correlation Function for Galaxies
385
1421 The Relation Between ξr and the Power Spectrum of the Fluctuations
388
1422 The Initial Power Spectrum
390
1423 The HarrisonZeldovich Power Spectrum
391
1431 Adiabatic Cold Dark Matter
393
1433 Isocurvature Cold Dark Matter
396
1434 The Subsequent Evolution
399
144 Biasing
401
145 Reconstructing the Processed Initial Power Spectrum
405
1451 Redshift Biases
406
1452 NonLinear Development of Density Perturbations
407
1453 The Role of Baryon Perturbations
409
146 The Acoustic Peaks in the Power Spectrum of Galaxies
411
1462 Sloan Digital Sky Survey
412
147 Variations on a Theme of Cold Dark Matter
415
15 Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
421
151 The Ionisation of the Intergalactic Gas Through the Epoch of Recombination
422
152 The Physical and Angular Scales of the Fluctuations
424
1521 The Last Scattering Layer
425
1522 The Silk Damping Scale
426
1523 The Sound Horizon at the Last Scattering Layer
427
1524 The Particle Horizon Scales
429
1525 Summary
430
in the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation 1531 The Statistical Description of the Temperature Fluctuations
431
1532 The Power Spectrum of Fluctuations in the Intensity of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
434
1541 The SachsWolfe Effect Physical Arguments
436
1543 Primordial Gravitational Waves
440
155 Intermediate Angular Scales the Acoustic Peaks
443
1561 Statistical and Silk Damping 1562 The SunyaevZeldovich Effect in Clusters of Galaxies
450
1563 Confusion Due to Discrete Sources
451
157 The Reionised Intergalactic Gas
452
1581 The Polarisation Mechanism for the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
454
1582 Polarisation from the Last Scattering Layer
455
1583 Polarisation from the Epoch of Reionisation
458
1584 Primordial Gravitational Waves
459
1585 Weak Gravitational Lensing
460
159 Determination of Cosmological Parameters
463
1510 Other Sources of Primordial Fluctuations
465
1511 Reflections
466
The PostRecombination Universe
468
16 The PostRecombination Era
471
161 The NonLinear Collapse of Density Perturbations
472
1611 Isotropic TopHat Collapse
473
1612 The Zeldovich Approximation
475
162 The Role of Dissipation
477
1631 Exposition Elementary Theory
482
1632 Development and Recapitulation
485
171 Introduction
490
172 Counts of Galaxies and Active Galaxies
492
1721 Euclidean Source Counts
493
1722 Source Counts for the Standard World Models
494
1723 Submillimetre Counts of Dusty Galaxies
500
1724 Number Counts in Models with Finite ΩΛ
501
1725 Fluctuations in the Background Radiation due to Discrete Sources
504
173 The VVmax or LuminosityVolume Test
507
1741 Background Radiation and Source Counts 1742 Evaluating the Background due to Discrete Sources
510
1743 The Effects of Evolution the Case of the Radio Background Emission
512
1751 Number Counts and VVmax Tests for Extragalactic Radio Sources
514
1752 Radio Quiet Quasars
518
1753 XRay Source Counts
524
1754 XRay Clusters of Galaxies
529
176 Infrared and Submillimetre Number Counts
532
177 Counts of Galaxies
537
178 Clusters of Galaxies
543
18 The Intergalactic Medium
547
181 The Background Emission of and Absorption by the Intergalactic Gas
548
182 The GunnPeterson Test
549
1831 The Properties of the Lymanα Absorption Clouds
552
1832 The Nature of the Clouds in the Lymanα Forest
554
1833 The Evolution of Lymanα Absorption Clouds with Cosmic Epoch
556
1834 The Power Spectrum of the Lymanα Forest
557
184 The Lukewarm Intergalactic Gas
560
1841 The XRay Background and a Cosmic Conspiracy
561
1842 The Collisional Excitation of the Intergalactic Gas
562
1843 The Emission and Absorption of Diffuse Lukewarm Intergalactic Gas
564
1844 The Proximity Effect and the Diffuse Ultraviolet Background Radiation at Large Redshifts
567
185 The Lyman Continuum Opacity of the Intergalactic Gas
569
186 Modelling the Evolution of the Intergalactic Medium
571
187 The Epoch of Reionisation
574
188 The Origin of Magnetic Fields
577
191 Star and Element Formation in Galaxies
583
1911 The Background Radiation and Element Formation
584
1912 The Global Star Formation Rate from Optical and Ultraviolet Observations of StarForming Galaxies
587
1914 The Hubble Deep and Ultra Deep Fields
590
1915 Submillimetre Determinations of the Cosmic StarFormation Rate
596
192 The Abundances of Elements in Lymanα Absorption Systems
598
193 The Equations of Cosmic Chemical Evolution
604
194 The Old Red Galaxies
607
195 The Origin of Rotation
610
196 Putting It All Together SemiAnalytic Models of Galaxy Formation
613
201 The Big Problems 2011 The Horizon Problem
621
2013 The BaryonAsymmetry Problem
622
2015 The Values of the Cosmological Parameters
623
202 The Limits of Observation
624
203 The Anthropic Cosmological Principle
625
204 The Inflationary Universe Historical Background
626
205 The Origin of the Spectrum of Primordial Perturbations
629
2052 The Duration of the Inflationary Phase
630
2053 The Shrinking Hubble Sphere
631
2054 Scalar Fields
634
2055 The Quantised Harmonic Oscillator
635
2056 The Spectrum of Fluctuations in the Scalar Field
637
206 Baryogenesis
641
207 The Planck Era
642
References
645
Name Index
695
Index
701
Copyright

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About the author (2008)

Malcolm S. Longair is Emeritus Jacksonian Professor of Natural Philosophy and Director of Development at the Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge. He has held many senior positions in physics and astronomy, and has served on and chaired many national and international committees, boards and panels, working with both NASA and the European Space Agency. He has received much recognition for his work, including a CBE in the millennium honours list for his services to astronomy and cosmology. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, the Royal Society of Edinburgh, the Academia Lincei and the Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Arte e Literatura.

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