Responses of plants to environmental stresses
Stress and strain terminology. Physical stress strain. Biological stress strain. The nature of stress injury and stress resistance. Kinds of stress tolerance. temperature stresses. Low-temperature stress - limits of tolerance. Dehydrated protoplasm. Hydrated protoplasm. Clilling injury. Chilling stress. Chilling resistance. Mechanism of chilling resistance. Low-temperature stresses - the freezing process. The freezing stress. Observations of frozen and thawed tissues. The cause of extracellular freezing. Eutectic points. The double freezing point. Freezing injury. Occurrence. Primary direct freezing injury. The time factor as evidence of the kind of injury. The moment of freezing injury. Primary indirect freezing injury. Secondary freezing injury. Freezing resistance. Possible types of resistance. Measurement of freezing tolerance. Changes in freezing tolerance. The nature of freezing tolerance. Factors related to freezing tolerance. Morphological, Anatomical and physiological factors. Resistance induced by applied substances. Theories of freezing injury and resistance. Secondary freeze-induced dehydration injury. Molecular basis of freezing injury and tolerance. The SH hypothesis. Molecular aspects of membrane damage. The mechanism of hardening. High-temperature or heat stress. Heat resistance. Water stress. Water deficit (or drought) stress. Drought avoidance. Drought tolerance. The measurement of drought resistance. Radiation stresses. Radiation stress - visible and ultraviolet radiation. Ionizing radiations. Salts and other stresses. Salt and ion stresses. Miscellaneous stresses. Interrelations. Comparative stress responses.
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B Biological Stress and Strain
The Nature of Stress Injury and Resistance
Kinds of Stress Tolerance
39 other sections not shown
accumulation activity algae amino acid anaerobic respiration ascorbic acid avoidance Biebl cell sap cell wall changes chloroplasts concentration correlation decrease dehydration denaturation direct injury drought resistance drought tolerance effect elastic enzymes exposure factor freeze-dehydration freezing injury freezing point freezing tolerance frozen germination growth halophytes hardiness heat injury heat tolerance heat-killing high temperatures higher plants hydrophobic Iljin inactivation increase indirect induced inhibition intracellular freezing irradiation leaf leaves Levitt lipids loss low temperature lower measured mechanism membrane mesophiles metabolic molecules NaCl normal occur osmotic oxidation permeability photosynthesis plasmolysis plastic strain primary produced proline protective protein protoplasm radiation relationship relative respiration root salinity salt secondary seedlings seeds SH groups showed soil soluble solutions species SS bonds stomata substances sucrose sugar survive synthesis Table thawing thermophilic thermostability thermotolerance tion tissue toxic turgor unhardened vacuole varieties water content water potential water stress wheat wilting winter xerophytes