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The inherent and cultural bases of standardization
The sociopolitical context of standardization
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Abstand acculturation alphabetic writing arising standard aristocratic Ausbau avant-garde awareness become borrowing calques classical codification cognitive conscious constitute criteria cultural avant-garde degree dominant elaboration elements emergence example exist extranormal fact factors francien French language grammar grammarians Greek Greenlandic H language Haugen Hebrew hierarchy human ideology individual influence Inupiaq Italian Jespersen 1925 Katharevousa Kloss language planning language standardization language's langue Latin lexical lexicon lingua linguistic change literary logic means Middle French Milroy modern morphological nature non-standard dialects norm normal noun occur original period persons phonemic phonological plural political prescriptivism prestige pronunciation Pulgram purism Renaissance scientific linguistics semantic sense sixteenth century social sociolinguistic speakers speech community Spelling pronunciations spoken Standard English Standard French standard language status subjunctive superposed superposition Swahili synecdochic dialect syntactic syntax tion tradition usage users value judgments variants verb vernacular Western civilization words writing system written