Muhammad and the Conquests of Islam
The author attempts to explain the astonishing series of conquests which have marked the triumph of Muhammad and his successors, and which in less than a hundred years extended the frontiers of Islam from Samarkand to Toledo.
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Muhammad in history
The Arabian Peninsula 79
Arabia before Muhammad
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Abbasid Abu Bakr Abu Ubaida al-'Aqaba Allah Amr ibn al-'As ancient Arab empire Arab tradition Arabia army Asia attack battle became bedouin began Berber Byzantine Byzantium Caliph campaigns capital centre century Christian civilisation command conquered conquerors conquest converts to Islam culture Damascus death decades defeated desert divine dynasty east eastern economic Egypt enemy ethnic Euphrates expansion expedition faith force Ghassanids governor Greek Hajjaj Hijaz historians Ifriqiya invaders invasion Iranian Iraq Khalid ibn al-Walid Khurasan Koran Kufa Lakhmids land later leader Maghrib Mecca Medina Medinese Mediterranean military modern mosque Mu'awiya Muham Muhammad Muslim native nomads North Africa organised Oxus pagan Peninsula period Persian poetry political population pre-Islamic Prophet province Qutaiba raids reached religion religious resistance rule Sasanid Sicily social Sogdiana southern Spain successor Sufyan Syria Tariq tion took Transoxiana tribal tribes Turkish Umar Umayyad Uqba victory Yarmuk Yazid