Evolutionary Biology, Volume 30 (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Max K. Hecht, Ross J. MacIntyre, Michael T. Clegg
Springer Science & Business Media, Apr 30, 1998 - Medical - 369 pages
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After volume 33, this book series was replaced by the journal "Evolutionary Biology." Please visit www.springer.com/11692 for further information.

Volume 30 brings readers up to date on the investigation of eminent evolutionary biologists and paleobiologists. Contributions explore such topics as

  • Adaptation in Drosophila and the role of cytochrome P450s
  • Population genetics and species conservation of the cheetah
  • germ-layer theory
  • assymetry in the mammalian skeleton
  • genetic diversity of marine fish
  • the phenomenon of industrial melanism
  • the variation in lizard cranal kinesis.
Other chapters focus on such issues as overdominance and its relation to higher mutation-rate estimates and the use of molecular clocks in determining the rate of nucleotide substitution in higher plants.
  

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Contents

Overdominance A HalfCentury Later
1
Overdominance
4
High MutationRate Estimates
5
The Human Population
7
Concluding Remarks
9
Questions from the Audience
10
References
12
The Molecular Basis of Adaptation in Drosophila The Role of Cytochrome P450s
15
Heterotopy
167
Conclusions
170
Acknowledgment
172
Fluctuating Asymmetry in the Mammalian Skeleton Evolutionary and Developmental Implications
187
Background and Theory
189
Heterozygosity
191
Hybridization
193
Developmental Time
195

The CactusMicroorganismDrosphila Model System of the Sonoran Desert
16
Desert System Components
18
Host Plant Utilization and Allelochemical Tolerance
24
Mechanisms of Allelochemical Tolerance
26
Modified Physiological Pathways
27
Biochemical Resistance
28
Cytochrome P450s
29
Discovery and Characterization
30
Evolution
32
Regulatory Mechanisms
34
Insect Cytochrome P450s
37
The Role of Cytochrome P450s in the Desert System
39
Cloning and Analysis of Cytochrome P450 cDNAs from Desert Drosophila
43
Future Directions
64
Acknowledgments
65
References
66
Intersection of Population Genetics and Species Conservation The Cheetahs Dilemma
79
Cheetahs Never Win
80
Conclusion
87
Acknowledgments
88
Molecular Clocks and Nucleotide Substitution Rates in Higher Plants
93
Molecular Clock Concepts
94
Additional Clock Concepts
95
Absolute and Relative Estimates of Nucleotide Substitution Rates
96
Relative Substitution Rates
97
Absolute Rates of Nucleotide Substitution
99
Absolute Rate Estimates Based on Rice and Maize Sequences
100
Absolute Rates Vary among Genes
102
The Nuclear Genome
105
The Mitochondrial Genome
106
Correlated Relatives Rates Among Loci
107
The Relative Ratio Test
108
Relative Ratios between Chloroplast Loci
110
Relative Ratios between Loci from Different Genomes
112
Conclusions
115
Acknowledgments
116
Germ Layers and the GermLayer Theory Revisited Primary and Secondary Germ Layers Neural Crest as a Fourth Germ Layer Homology and Demis...
121
GermLayer Formation
123
Morphogenetic Movements
124
Selective Cell Affinity
126
Discovery of the Germ Layers Homology and Common Ground Plans for Embryonic Development
128
Pander Rathke and von Baer
129
Haeckel and Beyond
132
Names and Honologies of the Germ Layers
135
Remak Haeckel and Kowalevsky
137
Lankester The Hertwigs Germ Layers and Classification
139
FM Balfour
144
The Germ Layers of the Chick Blastoderm
147
Germ Layers Homology and Mechanisms of Development
148
Formation of Mesoderm as a Secondary Germ Layer
153
The Neutral Crest
154
Discovery of Neural Crest and Ectomesenchyme
155
Experimental Evidence for NeuralCrest Origin of Cranial and Visceral Mesenchyme and Skeletal Tissues
157
Differences between Neural Crest and Mesodermally Derived Skeletons
160
A Secondary Germ Layer that Arises by Induction
161
Neurocristopathies and the Neural Crest as Germ Layer
163
Further Evidence at Variance with the GermLayer Theory
166
Models for the Etiology of Osteometric Fluctuating Asymmetry
196
3 The FA Represents the Accumulated Effect of BetweenSide Variation in Growth
198
Methods and Materials
205
The Provenience of the Sample
207
The Phylogeny of the Sample
208
Measurements
210
Indices of Fluctuating Asymmetry
211
The Effects of Directional Asymmetry and Antisymmetry
212
Fluctuating Asymmetry and Maturational Spans Among Species
215
Morphological Integration and Asymmetry
223
Conclusions and Implications
228
General Evolutionary lmplications
230
1mplications for Human and Primate Evolution
232
Bioarcheological lmplications
233
Conclusion
234
Acknowledgments
235
Appendix B
239
References
242
Genetic Diversity and Dispersal Capabilities in Marine Fish
253
Materials and Methods
256
Results
260
Discussion
266
Acknowledgments
272
Appendix
273
References
292
The Classical Explanation of Industrial Melanism Assessing the Evidence
299
The Industrial Melanism Phenomenon
300
Genetics and Induction
301
Industrialization and Melanism
304
Crypsis and Predation
305
Predation Experiments
309
MarkReleaseRecapture Studies
312
Is Melanism Presently Declining?
315
Summary
317
References
318
Cranial Kinesis in Lizards Variations Uses and Origins
323
The Basic Kinetic Skull of Lizards
325
Modifications of the Basic Kinetic Pattern
329
Differences in Palatal Mobility
331
Reduction of Cranial Kinesis
332
Variation in Degree of Streptostyly
333
Streptostyly
334
Amphikinesis and Related Movements
335
Evidence of Function from Observation of Living Lizards and from Historical Changes in Kinesis
336
Summary of Possible Performance Advantages of Cranial Kinesis in Feeding
337
Inferences from Function Ontogeny and Analogy
339
An Exaptive Hypothesis
340
How Lizards use Crevices
342
Morphological Correlates of Crevice Use
344
Maintaining Position in Crevices
347
Costs of Crevice Use and Their Amelioration
350
The Case for a CreviceUsing Interlude in the Evolution of Lizard Kinesis
351
Possible Corroboration of the Exaptive Hypothesis
353
Acknowledgments
354
Index
359
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