Programming for the Generalization of Oral Reading Fluency: A Comparison of Repeated Readings Versus Repeated Readings of Multiple Exemplars
ProQuest, 2008 - 129 pages
Although a number of interventions have been shown to be effective for improving students' oral reading fluency rates, significantly less research has been conducted to determine which interventions promote generalized reading performance to new texts. General case instruction (also called multiple exemplar instruction), in which teaching examples are carefully selected to sample from the stimulus and response variation, is a generalization programming technique that has been applied to myriad community skills but far fewer academic skills. The current study sought to apply this generalization programming strategy to promote generalized oral reading fluency. The study also sought to compare the efficiency (i.e., the amount of gains made in the amount of intervention time) of multiple exemplar instruction and a more typical listening passage preview/repeated readings intervention package. Participants consisted of 111 first and second grade students from three public schools in a large urban school district. One-way ANOVAs on the gain scores from pre-test to post-test were used to assess the effectiveness of multiple exemplar instruction, listening passage preview/repeated readings, and a time and attention control condition at promoting generalized reading fluency (in words correct per minute). Results showed that students in both the multiple exemplar group and the listening passage preview/repeated readings group outperformed students in the control group. Moreover, multiple exemplar instruction was more efficient. Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.
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academic skills addition analyses Ardoin assess Becker big gray Bonferroni correction community skills conducted control group current study Daly decoding demonstrated disabilities effect size effectiveness of multiple efficiency examine experimental passages experimental screening fluency gains fluency rates fluently future studies G1 passage gain scores Horner improvement inclusionary instructional hierarchy instructional universe instructionally matched intervention groups intervention package intervention sessions learning disabilities listening passage preview listening passage preview/repeated LPP/RR group LPP/RR ME Control Martens materials morphemic mouse multiple exemplar approach multiple exemplar instruction multiple exemplar strategy nontrained one-way ANOVA oral reading fluency participants passage preview/repeated readings phonemes phonics phrase drill practice reading pre-test to post-test procedure programming strategy promote generalized oral rabbit reading comprehension reading performance repeated readings responding response variation sample School second grade sentence structures significant squirrel stage steps completed stimulus control story students practice students read suggested Teacher teaching examples variable Wave of Data