Neocortical Modularity and the Cell Minicolumn
Manuel F. Casanova
Nova Biomedical Books, Jan 1, 2005 - Science - 210 pages
Our everyday view of the world may not necessarily be the most comprehensive one. In this regard neuropathologists should temper opinions based on a limited representation of reality. Microscopy freezes in time a two-dimensional representation of a minute histological process. One must acquire knowledge of the physiology of the lesion before reaching a multidimensional diagnosis. In the case of mental disorders, the modular organisation of the cortex may offer some clues to underlying aetiology. It is tissue, rather than individual cells, that provides for the phenomena of perceptual binding and gamma frequencies. It is the continuous re-entry of excitation into neuronal networks that provides for selective attention. The basis for language and its semantic content resides in the conjoint activation of topographically diverse brain regions. This book is designed to focus on the lowest hierarchical element within the modular organisation of the brain: the cell minicolumn. The minicolumn is a self-contained ecosystem of neurons and their connections that repeats itself throughout the extent of the neocortex. Although a few neuroanatomists at the turn of the century called attention to the vertical arrangement of the cortex, Vernon Mountcastle provided physiological proof in the 1950s for its existence and its role in perception.
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An Apologia for a Paradigm Shift in the Neurosciences
Reflections on the Structure of the Cortical Minicolumn
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afferent anatomical apical dendrite bundles area 17 axon bundles axons behavioral bouquet cell axons Brain Research Buxhoeveden DP Cajal calbindin Casanova MF cell arrays cell columns cell minicolumn cellular cerebral cortex chandelier cells columnar organization Comparative Neurology connections cortical areas cortical columns cortical neurons cytoarchitectonic DeFelipe density distribution double bouquet cells excitatory fibers Figure frequency GABAergic inhibitory input Jones EG Journal of Comparative Journal of Neurophysiology Journal of Neuroscience lamina macrocolumn Manuel F microcolumnar migration minicolumn fragment modules morphology Mountcastle VB mouse Mozart effect myelinated neocortex neocortical nervous system neural Neurology neuronal doctrine neuropil neuropil space Neuroscience Nissl-stained nonpyramidal orientation parietal patterns Peters physiological primates processing properties pyramidal cells pyramidal neurons quantitative radial receptive fields response sensory cortex Sethares smooth interneurons somatic somatosensory cortex spatial specific spines stained stimulus structure studies symmetry synapses telencephalon tissue Tommerdahl trion model unit vertical vertical bundles visual cortex width