Rivers of Fire: The Conflict Over Water in the Middle East
In a never-ending battle to match population growth with food and energy production, the countries of the Middle East have been frenziedly developing water resources, including international rivers and groundwate, without considering their neighbors' needs. The inevitable result has been more frequent and increasingly bitter conflicts. At the same time, a halting Arab-Israeli peace process spurred by the collapse of the Soviet Union continues. Are we indeed entering a new era in a new Middle East? Do the region's leaders understand that reality has changed and that a transition is inevitable? Focusing on international rivers and ground water in the region, this timely study provides thoughtful_if pessimistic_answers to these questions. Encompassing all water sources in the Middle East, Arnon Soffer thoroughly explores the Nile, Tigris, Euphrates, Jordan, Orontes, and Litani Rivers, as well as international groundwater. He also weighs the implications of going to war over water and such unconventional solutions to the water shortage as desalination and importation.
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The Nile Basin
Geopolitics of the Euphrates and Tigris Drainage Basin
The JordanYarmuk Basin Conflict over Little Water
The Orontes River as a Geopolitical Problem
Internationalized Water Sources The Litani River
International Groundwater Conflicts in the Making
100 million m3 According additional allocated amount of water aquifer Arab Aswan High Dam Bet She'an billion m3 billion m3 annually Blue Nile border construction cooperation countries Dead Sea demand for water desalination discharge downstream drainage basin economic Egypt Egyptian estimated Ethiopia Euphrates evaporation feet Figure flood flow Gaza Strip geopolitical groundwater Hasbani hectares historical rights implemented international river Iraq Israel Israel and Jordan Israeli Johnston plan Jordan basin Jordan River Jordan valley Jordan water Jordanian kingdom Kinneret Kolars Lake Nasser Lebanon lion m3 Litani m3 of water Middle East miles million hectares Naff and Matson needs Nile basin Nile water Orontes Palestinians percent pumping recycled water region reservoir riparians river water sewage water solve Sudan supply Syria Syria and Iraq Table territory Tigris Tigris and Euphrates tion transfer tributaries Turkey upstream water potential water projects water shortage water sources West Bank White Nile Yarmuk basin Yarmuk water
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