Dietary Reference Intakes:: Applications in Dietary Assessment

Front Cover

Since 1994 the Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board has been involved in developing an expanded approach to developing dietary reference standards. This approach, the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), provides a set of four nutrient-based reference values designed to replace the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in the United States and the Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) in Canada. These reference values include Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Adequate Intake (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). To date, several volumes in this series have been published.

This new book, Applications in Dietary Assessment, provides guidance to nutrition and health research professionals on the application of the new DRIs. It represents both a "how to" manual and a "why" manual. Specific examples of both appropriate and inappropriate uses of the DRIs in assessing nutrient adequacy of groups and of individuals are provided, along with detailed statistical approaches for the methods described. In addition, a clear distinction is made between assessing individuals and assessing groups as the approaches used are quite different. Applications in Dietary Assessment will be an essential companion to any-or all-of the DRI volumes.

  

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Contents

Introduction to Dietary Reference Intakes
29
CATEGORIES OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES
30
PARAMETERS FOR DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES
36
SUMMARY
42
Overview and Methods
44
METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
45
ESTIMATES OF NUTRIENT INTAKE
54
DIETARY INTAKES IN THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA
55
Manganese
394
SELECTION OF INDICATORS FOR ESTIMATING THE REQUIREMENT FOR MANGANESE
397
FACTORS AFFECTING THE MANGANESE REQUIREMENT
401
FINDINGS BY LIFE STAGE AND GENDER GROUP
402
INTAKE OF MANGANESE
407
TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS
408
RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MANGANESE
414
REFERENCES
415

SUMMARY
58
A Model for the Development of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
60
A MODEL FOR THE DERIVATION OF TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS
62
APPLICATION OF THE RISK ASSESSMENT MODEL TO NUTRIENTS
67
STEPS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVEL
71
INTAKE ASSESSMENT
79
REFERENCES
80
Vitamin A
82
BACKGROUND INFORMATION
83
SELECTION OF INDICATORS FOR ESTIMATING THE REQUIREMENT FOR VITAMIN A
97
FACTORS AFFECTING THE VITAMIN A REQUIREMENT
106
FINDINGS BY LIFE STAGE AND GENDER GROUP
110
INTAKE OF VITAMIN A
122
TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS
125
RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR VITAMIN A
146
Vitamin K
162
SELECTION OF INDICATORS FOR ESTIMATING THE REQUIREMENT FOR VITAMIN K
165
FACTORS AFFECTING THE VITAMIN K REQUIREMENT
173
FINDINGS BY LIFE STAGE AND GENDER GROUP
176
INTAKE OF VITAMIN K
184
TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS
187
RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR VITAMIN K
189
Chromium
197
SELECTION OF INDICATORS FOR ESTIMATING THE REQUIREMENT FOR CHROMIUM
202
FACTORS AFFECTING THE CHROMIUM REQUIREMENT
204
FINDINGS BY LIFE STAGE AND GENDER GROUP
205
INTAKE OF CHROMIUM
211
TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS
213
RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CHROMIUM
216
REFERENCES
217
Copper
224
SELECTION OF INDICATORS FOR ESTIMATING THE REQUIREMENT FOR COPPER
229
FACTORS AFFECTING THE COPPER REQUIREMENT
233
FINDINGS BY LIFE STAGE AND GENDER GROUP
235
INTAKE OF COPPER
245
TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS
246
RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COPPER
252
Iodine
258
SELECTION OF INDICATORS FOR ESTIMATING THE REQUIREMENT FOR IODINE
262
FACTORS AFFECTING THE IODINE REQUIREMENT
267
FINDINGS BY LIFE STAGE AND GENDER GROUP
268
INTAKE OF IODINE
277
TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS
278
RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IODINE
284
Iron
290
SELECTION OF INDICATORS FOR ESTIMATING THE REQUIREMENT FOR IRON
300
FACTORS AFFECTING THE IRON REQUIREMENT
311
FINDINGS BY LIFE STAGE AND GENDER GROUP
316
INTAKE OF IRON
355
TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS
356
RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IRON
378
Molybdenum
420
SELECTION OF INDICATORS FOR ESTIMATING THE REQUIREMENT FOR MOLYBDENUM
422
FACTORS AFFECTING THE MOLYBDENUM REQUIREMENT
424
FINDINGS BY LIFE STAGE AND GENDER GROUP
425
INTAKE OF MOLYBDENUM
432
TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS
433
RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR MOLYBDENUM
439
Zinc
442
SELECTION OF INDICATORS FOR ESTIMATING THE REQUIREMENT FOR ZINC
447
FACTORS AFFECTING THE ZINC REQUIREMENT
454
FINDINGS BY LIFE STAGE AND GENDER GROUP
458
INTAKE OF ZINC
480
TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS
481
RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ZINC
488
REFERENCES
489
Arsenic Boron Nickel Silicon and Vanadium
502
ARSENIC
503
BORON
510
NICKEL
521
SILICON
529
VANADIUM
532
REFERENCES
543
Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes
554
ASSESSING NUTRIENT INTAKES OF INDIVIDUALS
555
ASSESSING NUTRIENT INTAKES OF GROUPS
558
PLANNING NUTRIENT INTAKES OF INDIVIDUALS
562
PLANNING NUTRIENT INTAKES OF GROUPS
563
NUTRIENTSPECIFIC CONSIDERATIONS
564
SUMMARY
576
REFERENCES
578
A Research Agenda
580
MAJOR KNOWLEDGE GAPS
581
THE RESEARCH AGENDA
584
Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes
587
Acknowledgments
591
Dietary Intake Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES III 19881994
594
Dietary Intake Data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals CSFII 19941996
644
Dietary Intake Data from the US Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study 19911997
654
Canadian Dietary Intake Data 1990
674
Biochemical Indicators for Iron Vitamin A and Iodine from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES III 19881994
680
Comparison of Vitamin A and Iron Intake and Biochemical Indicators from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES I...
692
Iron Intakes and Estimated Percentiles of the Distribution of Iron Requirements from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals CSFII 19...
697
Glossary and Acronyms
704
Conversion of Units
709
Options for Dealing with Uncertainties
710
Biographical Sketches of Panel and Subcommittee Members
715
Index
729
RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR INDIVIDUALS VITAMINS
770
RECOMMENDED INTAKES FOR INDIVIDUALS VITAMINS
772
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