Laser Spectroscopy: Basic Concepts and Instrumentation

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, 2003 - Science - 987 pages
3 Reviews
Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., frequency doubling in external cavities, reliable cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV sources, more sensitive detection techniques, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray region and the attosecond range), control of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs able to synchronize independent femtosecond lasers, coherent matter waves, and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.
  

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Contents

Introduction
1
Absorption and Emission of Light
7
22 Thermal Radiation and Plancks Law
10
23 Absorption Induced and Spontaneous Emission
12
24 Basic Photometric Quantities
16
241 Definitions
17
242 Illumination of Extended Areas
19
25 Polarization of Light
20
Laser Raman Spectroscopy
499
82 Experimental Techniques of Linear Laser Raman Spectroscopy
504
83 Nonlinear Raman Spectroscopy
511
832 Coherent AntiStokes Raman Spectroscopy
517
833 Resonant CARS and BOX CARS
520
834 HyperRaman Effect
522
835 Summary of Nonlinear Raman Spectroscopy
523
84 Special Techniques
524

26 Absorption and Emission Spectra
22
27 Transition Probabilities
26
Basic Equations
29
273 WeakField Approximation
32
274 Transition Probabilities with BroadBand Excitation
33
275 Phenomenological Inclusion of Decay Phenomena
35
276 Interaction with Strong Fields
37
277 Relations Between Transition Probabilities Absorption Coefficient and Line Strength
41
28 Coherence Properties of Radiation Fields
42
282 Spatial Coherence
44
283 Coherence Volume
45
284 The Coherence Function and the Degree of Coherence
48
29 Coherence of Atomic Systems
52
291 Density Matrix
53
292 Coherent Excitation
54
293 Relaxation of Coherently Excited Systems
56
Problems
57
Widths and Profiles of Spectral Lines
59
31 Natural Linewidth
60
312 Relation Between Linewidth and Lifetime
62
313 Natural Linewidth of Absorbing Transitions
64
32 Doppler Width
68
33 Collisional Broadening of Spectral Lines
72
331 Phenomenological Description
73
332 Relations Between Interaction Potential Line Broadening and Shifts
78
333 Collisional Narrowing of Lines
81
34 TransitTime Broadening
82
35 Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Line Broadening
85
36 Saturation and Power Broadening
87
362 Saturation Broadening of Homogeneous Line Profiles
89
363 Power Broadening
91
37 Spectral Line Profiles in Liquids and Solids
92
Problems
94
Spectroscopic Instrumentation
97
411 Basic Properties
99
412 Prism Spectrometer
109
413 Grating Spectrometer
112
42 Interferometers
120
421 Basic Concepts
121
422 Michelson Interferometer
122
423 MachZehnder Interferometer
127
424 MultipleBeam Interference
130
425 Plane FabryPerot Interferometer
137
426 Confocal FabryPerot Interferometer
145
427 Multilayer Dielectric Coatings
150
428 Interference Filters
154
429 Birefringent Interferometer
157
4210 Tenable Interferometers
161
43 Comparison Between Spectrometers and Interferometers
162
432 LightGathering Power
164
44 Accurate Wavelength Measurements
166
441 Precision and Accuracy of Wavelength Measurements
167
442 Todays Wavemeters
169
45 Detection of Light
179
451 Thermal Detectors
182
452 Photodiodes
187
453 Photodiode Arrays
197
454 Photoemissive Detectors
200
455 Detection Techniques and Electronic Equipment
211
46 Conclusions
217
Problems
218
Lasers as Spectroscopic Light Sources
221
512 Threshold Condition
222
513 Rate Equations
224
52 Laser Resonators
226
521 Open Optical Resonators
228
522 Spatial Field Distributions in Open Resonators
231
523 Confocal Resonators
232
524 General Spherical Resonators
236
525 Diffraction Losses of Open Resonators
237
526 Stable and Unstable Resonators
238
527 Ring Resonators
242
528 Frequency Spectrum of Passive Resonators
243
53 Spectral Characteristics of Laser Emission
246
532 Gain Saturation
249
533 Spatial Hole Burning
251
534 Multimode Lasers and Gain Competition
253
535 Mode Pulling
256
54 Experimental Realization of SingleMode Lasers
258
542 Suppression of Transverse Modes
262
543 Selection of Single Longitudinal Modes
264
544 Intensity Stabilization
271
545 Wavelength Stabilization
274
55 Controlled Wavelength Tuning of SingleMode Lasers
284
551 Continuous Tuning Techniques
285
552 Wavelength Calibration
288
56 Linewidths of SingleMode Lasers
291
57 Tunable Lasers
294
571 Basic Concepts
295
572 SemiconductorDiode Lasers
296
573 Tunable SolidState Lasers
302
574 ColorCenter Lasers
305
575 Dye Lasers
309
576 Excimer Lasers
325
577 FreeElectron Lasers
328
58 Nonlinear Optical Mixing Techniques
331
582 Phase Matching
333
583 SecondHarmonic Generation
335
584 Quasi Phase Matching
341
585 SumFrequency and HigherHarmonic Generation
343
586 XRay Lasers
348
587 DifferenceFrequency Spectrometer
349
588 Optical Parametric Oscillator
352
589 Tunable Raman Lasers
356
59 Gaussian Beams
359
Problems
365
DopplerLimited Absorption and Fluorescence Spectroscopy with Lasers
369
62 HighSensitivity Methods of Absorption Spectroscopy
373
621 Frequency Modulation
374
622 Intracavity Absorption
378
623 Cavity RingDown Spectroscopy CRDS
387
63 Direct Determination of Absorbed Photons
391
632 Photoacoustic Spectroscopy
396
633 Optothermal Spectroscopy
401
64 Ionization Spectroscopy
405
642 Sensitivity of Ionization Spectroscopy
407
643 Pulsed Versus CW Lasers for Photoionization
408
644 Resonant TwoPhoton Ionization Combined with Mass Spectrometry
411
645 Thermionic Diode
412
65 Optogalvanic Spectroscopy
413
66 VelocityModulation Spectroscopy
416
67 Laser Magnetic Resonance and Stark Spectroscopy
417
671 Laser Magnetic Resonance
418
672 Stark Spectroscopy
420
68 LaserInduced Fluorescence
421
681 Molecular Spectroscopy by LaserInduced Fluorescence
422
682 Experimental Aspects of LIF
424
683 LIF of Polyatomic Molecules
428
684 Determination of Population Distributions by LIF
429
69 Comparison Between the Different Methods
432
Problems
436
Nonlinear Spectroscopy
439
72 Saturation of Inhomogeneous Line Profiles
445
721 Hole Burning
446
722 Lamb Dip
450
73 Saturation Spectroscopy
453
731 Experimental Schemes
454
732 CrossOver Signals
458
733 Intracavity Saturation Spectroscopy
459
734 LambDip Frequency Stabilization of Lasers
462
74 Polarization Spectroscopy
463
741 Basic Principle
464
742 Line Profiles of Polarization Signals
465
743 Magnitude of Polarization Signals
470
744 Sensitivity of Polarization Spectroscopy
473
745 Advantages of Polarization Spectroscopy
476
752 DopplerFree Multiphoton Spectroscopy
479
753 Influence of Focusing on the Magnitude of TwoPhoton Signals
483
754 Examples of DopplerFree TwoPhoton Spectroscopy
485
755 Multiphoton Spectroscopy
487
76 Special Techniques of Nonlinear Spectroscopy
490
762 DopplerFree LaserInduced Dichroism and Birefringence
492
763 Heterodyne Polarization Spectroscopy
494
764 Combination of Different Nonlinear Techniques
495
77 Conclusion
497
842 SurfaceEnhanced Raman Scattering
525
843 Raman Microscopy
526
844 TimeResolved Raman Spectroscopy
527
Problems
529
Laser Spectroscopy in Molecular Beams
531
92 Adiabatic Cooling in Supersonic Beams
539
93 Formation and Spectroscopy of Clusters and Van der Waals Molecules in Cold Molecular Beams
547
94 Nonlinear Spectroscopy in Molecular Beams
551
95 Laser Spectroscopy in Fast Ion Beams
553
96 Applications of FIBLAS
556
962 Photofragmentation Spectroscopy of Molecular Ions
557
963 Laser Photodetachment Spectroscopy
560
97 Spectroscopy in Cold Ion Beams
561
98 Combination of Molecular Beam Laser Spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry
562
Problems
564
Optical Pumping and DoubleResonance Techniques
567
101 Optical Pumping
568
102 OpticalRF DoubleResonance Technique
573
1022 LaserRF DoubleResonance Spectroscopy in Molecular Beams
576
103 OpticalMicrowave Double Resonance
579
104 OpticalOptical Double Resonance
583
1041 Simplification of Complex Absorption Spectra
584
1042 Stepwise Excitation and Spectroscopy of Rydberg States
588
1043 Stimulated Emission Pumping
597
of DoubleResonance Spectroscopy
600
1052 Polarization Labeling
601
1053 MicrowaveOptical DoubleResonance Polarization Spectroscopy
603
1055 TripleResonance Spectroscopy
605
Problems
606
TimeResolved Laser Spectroscopy
609
111 Generation of Short Laser Pulses
610
1112 QSwitched Lasers
612
1113 Cavity Dumping
614
1114 Mode Locking of Lasers
616
1115 Generation of Femtosecond Pulses
625
1116 Optical Pulse Compression
631
1117 Sub 10fs Pulses with Chirped Laser Mirrors
635
1118 Fiber Lasers and Optical Solitons
638
1119 Shaping of Ultrashort Light Pulses
641
11110 Generation of HighPower Ultrashort Pulses
642
112 Measurement of Ultrashort Pulses
646
1122 Optical Correlator for Measuring Ultrashort Pulses
648
113 Lifetime Measurement with Lasers
658
1131 PhaseShift Method
660
1132 SinglePulse Excitation
662
1133 DelayedCoincidence Technique
663
1134 Lifetime Measurements in Fast Beams
665
114 PumpandProbe Technique
668
of Collisional Relaxation in Liquids
670
1142 Electronic Relaxation in Semiconductors
671
1143 Femtosecond Transition State Dynamics
672
1144 RealTime Observations of Molecular Vibrations
673
1145 Transient Grating Techniques
675
Problems
677
Coherent Spectroscopy
679
121 LevelCrossing Spectroscopy
680
1211 Classical Model of the Hanle Effect
681
1212 QuantumMechanical Models
684
1213 Experimental Arrangements
687
1214 Examples
688
1215 Stimulated LevelCrossing Spectroscopy
689
122 QuantumBeat Spectroscopy
692
1221 Basic Principles
693
1222 Experimental Techniques
694
1223 Molecular QuantumBeat Spectroscopy
699
124 Optical PulseTrain Interference Spectroscopy
702
125 Photon Echoes
704
126 Optical Nutation and FreeInduction Decay
711
127 Heterodyne Spectroscopy
713
128 Correlation Spectroscopy
714
1282 Correlation Spectroscopy of Light Scattered by Microparticles
718
1283 Homodyne Spectroscopy
719
1284 Heterodyne Correlation Spectroscopy
721
1285 Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and Single Molecule Detection
723
Laser Spectroscopy of Collision Processes
725
131 HighResolution Laser Spectroscopy of Collisional Line Broadening and Line Shifts
726
1311 SubDoppler Spectroscopy of Collision Processes
727
1312 Combination of Different Techniques
729
132 Measurements of Inelastic Collision Cross Sections of Excited Atoms and Molecules
731
1321 Measurements of Absolute Quenching Cross Sections
732
1322 CollisionInduced Rovibronic Transitions in Excited States
733
1323 Collisional Transfer of Electronic Energy
738
1324 Energy Pooling in Collisions Between Excited Atoms
739
1325 Spectroscopy of SpinFlip Transitions
741
133 Spectroscopic Techniques for Measuring CollisionInduced Transitions in the Electronic Ground State of Molecules
743
1331 TimeResolved Infrared Fluorescence Detection
744
1332 TimeResolved Absorption and DoubleResonance Methods
745
1333 Collision Spectroscopy with ContinuousWave Lasers
747
1334 Collisions Involving Molecules in High Vibrational States
749
134 Spectroscopy of Reactive Collisions
750
135 Spectroscopic Determination of Differential Collision Cross Sections in Crossed Molecular Beams
755
136 PhotonAssisted Collisional Energy Transfer
760
137 Photoassociation Spectroscopy of Colliding Atoms
764
Problems
765
New Developments in Laser Spectroscopy
767
1411 Photon Recoil
768
1412 Measurement of Recoil Shift
770
1413 Optical Cooling by Photon Recoil
772
1414 Experimental Arrangements
775
1415 Threedimensional Cooling of Atoms Optical Mollasses
780
1416 Cooling of Molecules
782
1417 Optical Trapping of Atoms
785
1418 Optical Cooling Limits
790
1419 BoseEinstein Condensation
793
14111 Applications of Cooled Atoms and Molecules
795
142 Spectroscopy of Single Ions
797
1422 Optical Sideband Cooling
799
1423 Direct Observations of Quantum Jumps
802
1424 Formation of Wigner Crystals in Ion Traps
804
1425 Laser Spectroscopy in Storage Rings
806
143 Optical Ramsey Fringes
808
1432 TwoPhoton Ramsey Resonance
811
1433 Nonlinear Ramsey Fringes Using Three Separated Fields
815
and Suppression of One Recoil Component
818
144 Atom Interferometry
819
1441 MachZehnder Atom Interferometer
820
1442 Atom Laser
822
145 The OneAtom Maser
823
146 Spectral Resolution Within the Natural Linewidth
826
1462 Coherence and Transit Narrowing
831
1463 Raman Spectroscopy with Subnatural Linewidth
833
147 Absolute Optical Frequency Measurement and Optical Frequency Standards
835
1472 Frequency Comb from Femtosecond Laser Pulses
838
148 Squeezing
840
1481 Amplitude and Phase Fluctuations of a Light Wave
841
1482 Experimental Realization of Squeezing
844
1483 Application of Squeezing to Gravitational Wave Detectors
848
Applications of Laser Spectroscopy
851
1512 SingleMolecule Detection
854
1513 LaserInduced Chemical Reactions
855
1514 Coherent Control of Chemical Reactions
859
1515 Laser Femtosecond Chemistry
860
1516 Isotope Separation with Lasers
862
1517 Summary of Laser Chemistry
865
1521 Absorption Measurements
866
1522 Atmospheric Measurements with LIDAR
868
1523 Spectroscopic Detection of Water Pollution
873
153 Applications to Technical Problems
874
1532 Applications of Laser Spectroscopy to Materials Science
877
1533 Measurements of Flow Velocities in Gases and Liquids
878
154 Applications in Biology
879
1542 TimeResolved Measurements of Biological Processes
881
1543 Correlation Spectroscopy of Microbe Movements
882
1544 Laser Microscope
883
1545 TimeResolved Spectroscopy of Biological Processes
884
155 Medical Applications of Laser Spectroscopy
885
1552 Heterodyne Measurements of Ear Drums
887
1553 Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy with the HPD Technique
888
1554 Laser Lithotripsy
889
1555 LaserInduced Thermotherapy of Brain Cancer
891
1556 Fetal Oxygen Monitoring
892
References
893
Subject Index
979
Copyright

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References to this book

Optik, Licht und Laser
Dieter Meschede
No preview available - 2005

About the author (2003)

Professor Wolfgang DemtrAder studied physics and mathematics, and received his PhD degree in 1961 from the University of Bonn. After working as an assistant professor and researcher at the University of Freiburg until 1967, he went as a visiting fellow to JILA in Boulder, Colorado. In 1970 he accepted a post as full professor at the newly founded University of Kaiserslautern, Germany, where he still works. Professor DemtrAder was awarded the Max-Born-Award of the English and German Physical Society in 1995. He is the author of about 150 scientific papers and several books.

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