Interpreting the Precautionary Principle
Viewed from the perspective of environmental management, this study describes the implications and applications of the precautionary principle - a theory of avoiding risk even when its likelihood seems remote. This principle has been employed in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the North Atlantic Convention, yet it is not widely understood. This study examines the history and context of the principle, and its applications to law, governmental policies, business and investment, scientific research and international relations.
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Part I History and Context of the Precautionary Principle
Part II Implications for Science
Part III Implications for Management
Part IV The International Dimension
Part V The Future
acid rain Agenda 21 apply argued assimilative capacity beneﬁts burden of proof carbon dioxide Chapter chemicals Clean Air Act clean production Clean Water Act climate change contamination context Convention costs and beneﬁts damage decision deﬁned deﬁnition difﬁcult discharges ecological economic ecosystems effects emissions environment environmental management environmental policy environmental protection example Federal ﬁeld ﬁrst ﬁsh genetically modiﬁed organisms German global groups harm hazards human identiﬁed implementation industry inﬂuence international law irreversible justiﬁed keystone species legislation marine measures ment monitoring Montreal Protocol natural North Sea ozone pesticide plankton political pollution potential practice precaution precautionary action precautionary approach precautionary principle prevention problems Programme prospect theory regulation regulatory require response risk assessment risk aversion role safety scientiﬁc certainty scientiﬁc knowledge signiﬁcant social species speciﬁc standards substances sufﬁcient sustainable development theoretical ecology tion uncertainty Vorsorge waste