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Technology transfer and knowledge and information flows
structure and institutions
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academic activities agency areas associated Basque Country benefits biotechnology cent co-ordination commercialisation companies consortia consultancy cost countries database departments economic engineering Europe European European Communities evaluation example expenditure expertise exploitation external factors flows formal Genentech Greece growth HEIs and PREs HEIs/PREs higher education important increasing individual industry industry-academic links information and communication initiatives innovation institutions interaction interorganisational IPRs laboratories linkage linkage mechanism major mechanisms Netherlands OECD operation orientation participants particular partners patent personnel Portugal potential private sector problems projects Protein Engineering public research public sector range regional research and technical research and technology research centres research collaboration research contracts research funding research network research organisations research programmes role science parks scientific SMEs Source Spain specific spin-off Table teaching company technical collaboration technology transfer United Kingdom universities West Midlands whilst wider