El Nino, La Nina, and the Southern Oscillation (Google eBook)
S. George Philander
Academic Press, Dec 14, 1989 - Science - 293 pages
El Nino and the Southern Oscillation is by far the most striking phenomenon caused by the interplay of ocean and atmosphere. It can be explained neither in strictly oceanographic nor strictly meteorological terms. This volume provides a brief history of the subject, summarizes the oceanographic and meteorological observations and theories, and discusses the recent advances in computer modeling studies of the phenomenon.
* Includes a comprehensive and up-to-date research survey
* Discusses in detail sophisticated computer models
* Provides a clear exposition of the major problems which prevent more accurate predictions of El Nino
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advection amplitude Atlantic Ocean changes Circulation Model coast coastal conﬁned convective convergence zones Coriolis parameter depth eastern tropical Paciﬁc eastward Ekman drift El Nino equator Equatorial Current equatorial jet Equatorial Undercurrent equatorially trapped equatorward Figure ﬁrst ﬂow ﬂuctuations frequency geostrophic group velocities horizontal Indian Ocean inﬂuence intense interactions interannual ITCZ Kelvin wave latitude latitudinal layer meridional monsoons motion Nifio Nina Nino nonlinear North Equatorial Countercurrent northern northward ocean and atmosphere ocean surface ocean—atmosphere oceanic response Oceanogr parameter period Philander Phys poleward pressure force radius of deformation rainfall reﬂected region Rossby waves scale sea surface temperature seasonal cycle shown in Fig simulated Somali Current South South Equatorial Current Southern Oscillation speciﬁed stratiﬁcation surface currents surface winds thermocline tropical Atlantic tropical Paciﬁc Ocean unstable upwelling variability velocity component Walker Circulation warm surface waters wave number westerly winds western equatorial Paciﬁc western Paciﬁc westward winds windstress Wyrtki zonal currents