A Manual Of Palaeontology: With A General Introduction On The Principles Of The Palaeontology

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Daya Publishing House, Jan 1, 1995 - 511 pages
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The book is an attempt, for the benefit of the students of Geology as also the common readers, to furnish an elaborate account of the leading principles and facts of the vast and ever increasing science of Palaeontology. The work includes all the essential facts coming under Palaeontology as a department of science, sufficiently distinct to stand alone and yet most closely connected with the sciences of Zoology and Botany on the one land and with Geology on the other. The first part of the book furnishers a general account of the principles of Palaeontology. In the second part, the past history of the animal life, technically known as Palaeozoology has been given in details. More space has been allotted to the Invertebrata group in this section than to the Vertebrata group, upon the ground that palaeontological students are, as a rule, much more largely concerned with the former than the latter. An attempt has also been made to give, as far as possible, brief and general definitions of the more important and widely distributed families of Invertebrata as well as, to a more limited extent, of the Vertebrata. The third part of the book gives a brief and very general view of Palaeobotany or the past history of the vegetable kingdom. This is a useful book for the students and common readers in search of knowledge on the subject. Contents Part 1- General Introduction; Chapter 1: Definition of Palaeontology; Definition of the term fossil , Processes of fossilisation, Definition of rock , Classification of rocks; Chapter 2: Characters of the Sedimentary rocks; Mode of formation of the sedimentary rocks, Definition of the term formation , Chief divisions of the aqueous rocks, Mechanically-formed rocks, Chemically-formed rocks, Organically-formed rocks, Chalk, Limestone, Silica and siliceous deposits, Carbon and carbonaceous deposits; Chapter 3: Different ages of the Aqueous rocks; Chronological succession of the aqueous rocks, Value and nature of palaeontological evidence in determining the position of strata, Zones of life, Use of the term contemporaneous, as applied to groups of beds, General sequence of phenomena at the close of each Geological period, Migrations, Differences between the fossils of known contemporaneous strata, Geological continuity, Relations between the Chalk and the Atlantic Ooze, Reappearance of similar forms of life under similar conditions, Doctrine of colonies, ; Chapter 4: Causes of the imperfection of the palaeontological record, Causes of the absence of certain animals as fossils, Unrepresented time, Unconformity, sequence of phenomena indicated by, Leading examples of unconformity, Thinning out of beds, Sudden extinction of animals, Disappearance of fossils; Chapter 5: Conclusions to be drawn from fossils, Age of rocks, Mode of origin of any fossiliferous bed, Fluviatile, lacustrine and marine deposits, Conclusions as to climate; Chapter 6: Primary divisions of the Animal Kingdom, Impossibility of a linear classification, Tabular view of the chief divisions of the Animal Kingdom, General succession and progression of organic types; Part 2- Palaeozoology; Chapter 7: Zoological Characters and Chief Divisions of the Protozoa, Relations of the protozoa to time, Characters of the foraminifera, Variations of the test of the foraminifera, Distribution of the foraminifera in time, Classification of the foraminifera, Types of foraminifera, Eozoon canadense, Receptaculites; Chapter 8: Characters of the Radiolaria, Polycystina, General characters of the spongida, Divisions of sponges, The horny sponges, The calcispongiae, The stromatoporoids, Archaeocyathus, Siliceous sponges, Hexatinellidae, Lithistidae, Literature of protozoa; Chapter 9: General characters and chief divisions of the coelenterata, Distribution in time of coelenterate animals, Orders of hydrozoa not represented as fossils, Fossil medusae and sea-blubbers, General characters of the corynida, Hydractinia, Labechia, Palaeocoryne, Corynoides, General characters of the thecaphora, Dendrograptus, Dictyonema, Structure and probable affinities of oldhamia, General characters and distribution of the graptolitidae, Structure of a simple graptolite, Reproduction of graptolites, Monoprionidian and diprionidian forms, Characters of the genus graptolites, Didymograptus, Tetragraptus, Dichograptus, Rastrites, Diplograptus, Climacograptus, Dicranograptus, Phyllograptus, Hydrocorallinae, Millepora, Stylaster, Literature of hydrozoa; Chapter 10: General facts as to the distribution of the actinozoa in time, Divisions of the zoantharia, Characters of z malacodermata, Characters of z sclerobasica and their distribution in time, Nature of a sclerodermic coral, Structure of a simple coral, Gemmation and fission amongst corals, Deep-sea corals and reef-builders, Ancient coral-reefs, Divisions and distribution in time of the zoantharia sclerodermata, Aporosa, Perforata, Tabulata, Tubulosa; Chapter 11: Characters of the Rugosa; Recent rugose corals, Operculate corals, Families and distribution in time of the rugosa, Characters of the alcyonaria, Tubiporidae, Gorgonidae, Helioporidae, Literature of actinozoa; Chapter 12: Characters of the Annuloida, Characters of the echinodermata, Distribution of echinodermata in time, General characters of the echinoidea, Structure of the test in echinoids, Spines and tubercles, Apical disc, Regular and irregular echinoids, Perischoechinidae, Distribution of echinoids in time, Chief families of echinoidea, their characters and distribution; Chapter 13: Characters of the Asteroidea; Features distinguishing them from the echinoidea, General structure of a star-fish, The internal and integumentary skeletons, Distribution of the asteroidea in time, Families and chief fossil type of the asteroidea, Agelacrinidae, Characters of the ophiuroidea, General structure of an ophiuroid, Their distribution in time; Chapter 14: Character of the Crinoidea; General structure of the skeleton of a crinoid, Distribution of the crinoidea in time, Families of the crinoidea; Chapter 15: Characters of the cystoidea; Structure of the column, calyx and appendages of the cystideans, Pectinated rhombs, Distribution of the cystideans in time, Chief genera of cystoidea, Pasceolus, Sphaerospongia, Nidulites, Cyclocrinus, Characters of the blastoidea, Structure of pentremites, Distribution of blastoidea in time, Characters and distribution in time of the holothuroidea, Literature of echinodermata; Chapter 16: Characters of the Annulosa; Characters of the annelida, Characters of the tubicola, Distribution of the tubicola in time, Cornulites, Conchicolites, Serpulites, Trachyderma, Spirorbis, Serpula, Ditrupa, Characters of the errant annelides, Scolithus, Arenicolites, Tracks of errant annelides, Myrianites, Origin of supposed annelide tracks, Literature of annelida; Chapter 17: Characters of Arthropoda; Distribution of arthropoda in time, Characters of crustacea, Morphology of a typical crustacean, General facts as to the past existence of crustacea, Table of the divisions of the crustacea, Characters and divisions of the cirripedia, Structure of the shell in the balanidae, Distribution of the balanidae in time, Characters and distribution of the verrucidae, Structure of the pedunculated cirripedes, Distribution of the lepadidae in time; Chapter 18: Characters and orders of the entomostracous crustaceans; Ostracoda, Distribution of the ostracoda in time, Estheria, Characters and distribution in time of the phyllopoda, Characters of the trilobita, General structure of a trilobite, Appendages of trilobites, Systematic position of trilobites, Distribution of trilobites in past time, Leading families of the trilobita, Characters and divisions of the merostomata, Characters and distribution in time of the eurypterida, Characters and distribution in time of the xiphosura; Chapter 19: Characters of the Malacostraca; Characters of the edriophthalmata, Characters and distribution in time of the amphipoda, Characters and distribution in time of the isopoda, Characters of the podophthalmata, Characters and distribution of the stomapoda, Characters and distribution of the decapoda, Macrura, Anomura, Brachyura, Literature of crustacea; Chapter 20: Characters of the Arachnida; General distribution of the arachnida in time, Characters and distribution of the scorpionidae, Characters and distribution of the araneida, Characters and distribution of the myriapoda, Characters and distribution in time in the insecta, Literature of arachnida, myriapoda and insects; Chapter 21: General Characters of the Mollusca; General characters of the shell of the molluscs, General distribution of the mollusca in time, Divisions of the mollusca, Characters of the polyzoa, Structure of the polypides and colonies of the polyzoa, Divisions of the polyzoa, Distribution of the polyzoa in time, Chief families of the polyzoa and their range in time; Chapter 22: General Characters of the Brachiopoda; Structure of the shell of the brachiopods, Oral processes and their supports, Divisions of the brachiopods, General distribution of the brachiopoda in time, Characters, distribution in time and leading genera of the terebratulidae, Thecidiidae, Spiriferidae, Koninckinidae, Rhynchonellidae, Thecidiidae, Spiriferidae, Koninckinidae, Rhynchonellidae, Strophomenidae, Productidae, Craniadae, Discinidae, Lingulidae, Trimerellidae; Chapter 23: General Characters of the Lamellibranchiata; Shell of the lamellibranchs, General distribution of the lamellibranchiata in time, Ostreidae, Aviculidae, Mytilidae, Arcadae, Trigoniadae, Unionidae, Chamidae, Hippuritidae, Tridacnidae, Cardiadae, Lucinidae, Cycladidae, Cyprinidae, Veneridae, Mactridae, Tellinidae, Solenidae, Myacidae, Anatinidae, Gastrochaenidae, Pholadidae.

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