Sputtering by particle bombardment III: characteristics of sputtered particles, technical applications
Rainer Behrisch, Klaus Wittmaack
Springer-Verlag, 1991 - Science - 410 pages
Sputtering, the ejection of atoms or groups of atoms from the surface of a solid bombarded by energetic particles, is a widely observed phenomenon that has many applications in today's experimental physics and technology. This is the third and final volume of a comprehensive review on sputtering. Whereas the first two volumes deal primarily with physical aspects such as the theory of sputtering, experimentally observed sputtering yields and surface topography changes, this volume is devoted to the characteristic properties of the sputtered particles and technological applications of sputtering. The particles are characterized by their energy, mass, and angular distributions, along with their charge and excitation states, while the applications described in- clude surface and depth analysis, micromachining, and the production of surface coatings and thin films. As in the previous two volumes, the various chapters have been written by the main authorities in the field. The book addresses a broad audience: scientists active in the field will find the overview and background information they have long been seeking, while students and new comers to surface science and materials science will find a readable introduction to sputtering.
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Angular Energy and Mass Distribution of Sputtered Particles
Charged and Excited States of Sputtered Atoms
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alloy Anal analysis analyzed angle angular distribution anisotropic Appl Behrisch Benninghoven cathode Chem chemical clusters collision cascade density dependence depth resolution effect electron electron affinity electronegative erosion etching excited atoms experimental film flux function glow discharge glycerol H.W. Werner Heidelberg hot cathode impact increasing Instrum ion beam ion bombardment ion energy Ion Mass Spectrometry ionization potential ionization probability J.W. Coburn laser lattice layer Lett magnetic Mass Spectrom Mass Spectrometry Mass Spectrometry SIMS material measured mechanism metal Methods molecular ions molecules neutral Nucl observed Oechsner oxidized oxygen parameters photon plasma potential primary ion Radiat recoil sample scanning Secondary Ion Mass secondary ion yields Sect sector instrument solid spectra spectrum Springer sputter deposition sputter depth profiling sputtered atoms sputtered particles sputtering yield sticking coefficient substrate Surf Surface Interf Surface Sci technique Technol temperature thin time-of-flight tion vacuum valence band velocity Wittmaack