Citizen Indians: Native American Intellectuals, Race, and Reform
By the 1890s, white Americans were avid consumers of American Indian cultures. At heavily scripted Wild West shows, Chautauquas, civic pageants, expositions, and fairs, American Indians were most often cast as victims, noble remnants of a vanishing race, or docile candidates for complete assimilation. However, as Lucy Maddox demonstrates in Citizen Indians, some prominent Indian intellectuals of the era--including Gertrude Bonnin, Charles Eastman, and Arthur C. Parker--were able to adapt and reshape the forms of public performance as one means of entering the national conversation and as a core strategy in the pan-tribal reform efforts that paralleled other Progressive-era reform movements.Maddox examines the work of American Indian intellectuals and reformers in the context of the Society of American Indians, which brought together educated, professional Indians in a period when the "Indian question" loomed large. These thinkers belonged to the first generation of middle-class American Indians more concerned with racial categories and civil rights than with the status of individual tribes. They confronted acute crises: the imposition of land allotments, the abrogation of the treaty process, the removal of Indian children to boarding schools, and the continuing denial of birthright citizenship to Indians that maintained their status as wards of the state. By adapting forms of public discourse and performance already familiar to white audiences, Maddox argues, American Indian reformers could more effectively pursue self-representation and political autonomy.
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Abbott African Americans allotment American Indian American Indian Stories argued Arthur Parker assimilation Bear's boarding school Buffalo Bill Carlos Montezuma Charles Eastman Christian citizen citizenship civilization Cody Cody's contemporary costume culture Dawes Act dian Dixon especially ethnology Exposition Fayette McKenzie Gertrude Bonnin Griffis Hampton Hiawatha Ibid Indian Affairs Indian intellectuals Indian policy Indian problem Indian question Indian reform Indian Rights Association Indian schools Indian students issues Lake Mohonk Conference land language lectures letter Leupp lives Luther Standing Bear Lyman Abbott ment Montezuma papers moral Negro non-Indian organization Oskison pageant pageantry performances photographs political progressive published Quarterly Journal race racial representations representative reservation Richard Henry Pratt Richard Pratt Robert Allen Warrior role Sioux Sitting Bull Sniffen social Society of American Southern Workman Spotted Eagle tion traditional tribal tribes uplift Wanamaker white America Wild West shows writing wrote xp fo York Zitkala-Sa
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