Thermal Physics

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, Jul 15, 1999 - Science - 442 pages
2 Reviews
Suitable for both undergraduates and graduates, this textbook provides an up-to-date, accessible introduction to thermal physics. The material provides a comprehensive understanding of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory, and has been extensively tested in the classroom by the author who is an experienced teacher. This book begins with a clear review of fundamental ideas and goes on to construct a conceptual foundation of four linked elements: entropy and the Second Law, the canonical probability distribution, the partition function, and the chemical potential. This foundation is used throughout the book to help explain new topics and exciting recent developments such as Bose-Einstein condensation and critical phenomena. The highlighting of key equations, summaries of essential ideas, and an extensive set of problems of varying degrees of difficulty will allow readers to fully grasp both the basic and current aspects of the subject. A solutions manual is available for instructors. This book is an invaluable textbook for students in physics and astronomy.
  

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Contents

Background
1
12 Some dilute gas relationships
4
13 The First Law of Thermodynamics
8
14 Heat capacity
11
15 An adiabatic process
13
16 The meaning of words
16
17 Essentials
18
Further reading
21
The Free Energies
222
102 Helmholtz free energy
225
103 More on understanding the chemical potential
226
104 Gibbs free energy
230
106 Why the phrase free energy?
234
107 Miscellany
236
108 Essentials
238
Further reading
239

The Second Law of Thermodynamics
24
22 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
28
23 The power of the Second Law
29
24 Connecting multiplicity and energy transfer by heating
31
25 Some examples
35
26 Generalization
39
27 Entropy and disorder
44
28 Essentials
45
Further reading
46
Problems
47
Entropy and Efficiency
51
32 Maximum efficiency
55
33 A practical consequence
59
34 Rapid change
60
35 The simplified Otto cycle
62
36 More about reversibility
67
37 Essentials
69
Further reading
70
Problems
71
Entropy in Quantum Theory
75
42 The quantum version of multiplicity
80
44 Essentials
86
Problems
87
The Canonical Probability Distribution
89
52 Probabilities when the temperature is fixed
91
spin h paramagnetism
94
54 The partition function technique
96
55 The energy range E
99
56 The ideal gas treated semiclassically
101
57 Theoretical threads
109
Further reading
111
Problems
112
Photons and Phonons
116
62 Electromagnetic waves and photons
118
63 Radiative flux
123
64 Entropy and evolution optional
128
65 Sound waves and phonons
130
66 Essentials
139
Further reading
141
The Chemical Potential
148
72 Minimum free energy
155
73 A lemma for computing
156
74 Adsorption
157
75 Essentials
160
Further reading
161
Problems
162
The Quantum Ideal Gas
166
82 Occupation numbers
168
classical and semiclassical
173
85 The nearly classical ideal gas optional
175
86 Essentials
178
Further reading
179
Problems
180
Fermions and Bosons at Low Temperature
182
92 Pauli paramagnetism optional
192
93 White dwarf stars optional
194
theory
199
experiments
205
96 A graphical comparison
209
97 Essentials
212
Further reading
214
Problems
215
Problems
240
Chemical Equilibrium
244
112 A consequence of minimum free energy
246
113 The diatomic molecule
250
114 Thermal ionization
257
115 Another facet of chemical equilibrium
260
116 Creation and annihilation
262
117 Essentials
264
Further reading
266
Phase Equilibrium
270
122 Latent heat
273
123 Conditions for coexistence
276
124 GibbsDuhem relation
279
125 ClausiusClapeyron equation
280
126 Cooling by adiabatic compression optional
282
127 Gibbsphase rule optional
290
128 Isotherms
291
129 Van der Waals equation of state
293
1210 Essentials
300
Further reading
301
The Classical Limit
306
132 The Maxwellian gas
309
133 The equipartition theorem
314
134 Heat capacity of diatomic molecules
318
135 Essentials
320
Further reading
322
Approaching Zero
327
142 Entropy in paramagnetism
329
143 Cooling by adiabatic demagnetization
331
144 The Third Law of Thermodynamics
337
145 Some other consequences of the Third Law
341
146 Negative absolute temperatures
343
147 Temperature recapitulated
347
148 Why heating increases the entropy Or does it?
349
149 Essentials
351
Further reading
352
Problems
353
Transport Processes
356
152 Random walk
360
viscosity
362
154 Pipe flow
366
thermal conduction
367
156 Timedependent thermal conduction
369
an example
372
158 Refinements
375
159 Essentials
377
Further reading
378
Critical Phenomena
382
162 Critical exponents
388
163 Ising model
389
164 Mean field theory
392
165 Renormalization group
397
166 Firstorder versus continuous
407
167 Universality
409
168 Essentials
414
Further reading
415
Epilogue
419
Physical and Mathematical Data
420
Examples of Estimating Occupation Numbers
426
The Framework of Probability Theory
428
Qualitative Perspectives on the van der Waals Equation
435
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About the author (1999)

RALPH BAIERLEIN received his PhD from Princeton University; his thirty seven years of classroom teaching were spent at Harvard and at Wesleyan University, Connecticut. He has published papers in astrophysics, cosmology and relativity theory. For eight years he served as book review editor of the American Journal of Physics, and has written many papers related to the teaching of physics. In 1996 he was elected a fellow of the American Physical Society.

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