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the Special Path
Absolutism and Nostalgia
Opera Reigns Supreme
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achieved aesthetic American artistic audience Austria Balakirev ballet Bayreuth Beethoven Berlin Berlioz bourgeois Brahms Bruckner Carl Nielsen central Europe Cesar Franck choral classical composers composition concert conductor Conservatory creative critical Crystal Palace culture Czech d'Indy dances Debussy dominated east central Europe Empire established European festival folksong founded France Franz French genre German Gustav Mahler Habsburg hall Hofoper Hungarian important increasingly influence institutions intellectual Italian Italy late later Leipzig liberal Liszt London Mahler modern movement musical language musicians musique nationalist nineteenth century opera orchestra Paris performance period Philharmonic piano pieces played poem political popular music programmes progress published Puccini radical repertory revolution Richard Strauss Richard Wagner Romantic Romanticism Russian music Saint-Saens Scandinavian Schoenberg significant social society songs St Petersburg stage Strauss style success symphonic poem Symphony Tchaikovsky theatre tradition trans twentieth century Vienna Viennese Wagner Weimar writes wrote York zarzuela