european agriculture and rural economy from personal observation (Google eBook)

Front Cover
1851
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Contents

The English Parks
21
Ornamental Shrubs and Flowers
29
Climate of England
31
Agricultural Population
34
The Farmers
38
The Agricultural Laborers
39
Allotment System
73
SECOND REPORT XIII Allotment System continued
81
Quantity of Seed
109
Steeping Seeds
114
Spade Husbandry
122
XVIL Condition of the Laborers
133
Progress of Agriculture compared with other Pursuits
144
Actual Improvements in English Agriculture
148
Live Stock and Vegetables
150
Application of Steam to Agriculture
151
Increased Production
159
Royal Agricultural Society
160
7 Agricultural Society of Scotland
166
Relation of Landlord and Tenant 167
167
XXL Game and the Game Laws
173
The Royal Agricultural Society of Ireland
175
Model Farm and Agricultural School
179
Dublin Botanical Garden
186
THIRD REPORT XXV Agricultural Education
189
Glasnevin Agricultural School
196
Templemoyle Agricultural School
203
Brookfield Agricultural School
212
Lame School
216
School at Ealing
218
Agricultural College at Cirencester
219
General Views of Agricultural Education
220
Influence of Knowledge upon Agriculture
223
Sciences to be taught
225
Chemical Science
226
Analysis of Soils
228
Soils of Heaths
229
Natural Science
237
Model Farm
239
Experimental Farm
240
Plan of an Agricultural Institution for the United States
244
Elevation of Agriculture as a Pursuit and a Profession
248
Rural Manners in England
251
A Pencil Sketch
252
Life in the Country
256
XL Veterinary College
257
Museum of Economic Geology
263
XLIL Chemical Agricultural Association in Scotland
265
XLIIL Chemical Agricultural Lectures
267
Employment of Agriculturists
268
Guano
270
FOURTH REPORT XLVL XLVII XLVIII XLIX L LI LIL General Considerations
285
Agriculture as a Commercial Pursuit
294
Markets Cattle Markets
297
Falkirk Tiyst
299
The Ballinasloe Fair
300
The Galway Fair
301
The Galway Women
304
Forms of Business in Smithfield
306
Weights and Measures
307
Weight of Animals Mode of ascertaining
308
Amount of Business
312
Character and Quality of Stock
314
Smithfield by Night
317
Attempted Removal of the Market from the City
319
Chartered Rights
321
Grain Markets
323
Arguments against Protection
333
Moral Views of the Question
334
Proper Ends of National Policy
335
Bread regarded in a peculiar Light
336
Peculiar Condition of the English Laboring Population
337
Excess of Population
339
Mode of adjusting Labor and Wages
341
Experiment in Germany
342
Claims of Labor and Duties of Wealth
343
Results of the German Experiment
345
Scotch Customs A Digression
346
LV1IL The DeadMeat Markets
347
SlaughterHouses in London
349
Customs of the Jews
351
Mode of slaughtering Animals
352
Vegetable and Fruit Markets
355
Market Gardens
373
CoventGarden Market
378
Flowers
380
General Markets
382
FIFTH REPORT LXII General Markets continued
385
General Remarks and Divisions of the Subject of English Farming
386
The Soil
389
Theories of the Operation of the Soil
392
LXVL A Modern Discovery
398
Soils of Great Britain
401
Classification of Soils
403
Physical Properties of the Soil
404
Power to absorb Moisture in a Soil
405
Consistency and Friability of Soils
407
Temperature of Soils
408
Peaty Soil
410
Loamy Soils
412
Humus or Vegetable Mould
413
Peculiarities of Soil
416
Application of Chemistry to Agriculture
417
Theory of Agriculture
418
Actual Improvements
420
LXXVIL Ploughing
421
LXXVIIL The English Character A Digression
422
The Perfection of Ploughing
423
Ploughing Match at Saffron Walden
424
General Rules for Ploughing
427
Lapping in Ploughing
433
Laying in Beds or Stitches
434
LazyBed Cultivation
436
Correct Ploughing
440
TrenchPloughing
443
SubsoilPloughing
448
Experiment in Subsoiling Heath Land
451
SubturfPlough
454
Smiths Subsoil Plough
455
Ploughing Matches
456
Horses used for Ploughing
459
A Digression
461
Improved Machinery
462
Machinery increases Production
464
General Effects on Labor
466
Moral Considerations
468
Harrowing
469
Gang of Light Seed Harrows
472
Scarifying or Grubbing 47
476
Scarifier
479
LXXXVIL General Remarks on the Use of Agricultural Machinery
483
Particular Examples of Improvement
485
Scobells Farm
486

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 135 - To provide for us in our necessities is not in the power of government. It would be a vain presumption in statesmen to think they can do it. The people maintain them, and not they the people.
Page 484 - Not here alone does bro" therly love fulfil that saying, ' if one member suffer, " all the members suffer with it, and if one member " be honoured, all the members rejoice with it.
Page 136 - ... in statesmen to think they can do it. The people maintain them, and not they the people. It is in the power of government to prevent much evil ; it can do very little positive good in this, or perhaps in anything else.
Page 30 - I thought it would induce them to make this a matter of particular attention and care. When a man asks me what is the use of shrubs and flowers, my first impulse is always to look under his hat and see the length of his ears.
Page 453 - ... might be expected, not large (about 26 bushels to the acre), but great in comparison to what it produced before. The millers were desirous of purchasing it, and could scarcely believe it was grown upon the heath land, as in former years my bailiff could with difficulty get a miller to look at his sample. Let this be borne in mind, that this land then had had no manure for years, was run out, and could only have been meliorated by the admission of air and moisture by the deep ploughing.
Page 453 - ... having been greatly injured by the torrents of rain which fell after they had shown themselves above the ground. Turnips must have a deep and well-pulverized soil, in order to enable them to swell, and the tap-roots to penetrate in search of food. The tap-root of a Swedish turnip has been known to penetrate 39 inches into the ground. I will add only two or three general observations, " 1st. The work done by the plough far exceeds trenching with the spade, as the plough only breaks and loosens...
Page 451 - ... so hard, that with difficulty could a pickaxe be made to enter in many places ; and my bailiff, who had looked after the lands for 35 years, told me that the lands were not worth...
Page 414 - This fertility is owing to the alkalies which are contained in the lava, and which by exposure to the weather are rendered capable of being absorbed by plants. Thousands of years have been necessary to convert stones and rocks into the soil of arable land, and thousands of years more will be requisite for their perfect reduction, that is, for the complete exhaustion of their alkalies.
Page 131 - As I felt satisfied that, by trenching with the spade, the land would derive all the advantage of a summer fallowing, and avoid all the disadvantages attending it, I determined on trenching thirty-four acres of my fallow-break immediately on the crop being removed from the ground, and had it sown with wheat by the middle of November, 1832. I may here remark that I did not apply any manure, as I thought the former crop was injured by being too bulky. As it is now...
Page 253 - I have shared, where the duties of the day are not preceded by the services of family worship; and the master and the servant, the parent and the child, the teacher and the taught, the friend and the stranger, come together to recognize and strengthen the sense of their common equality in the presence of their common Father, and to acknowledge their equal dependence upon his care and mercy.

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