Radiation protection and measurement issues related to cargo scanning with accelerator produced high-energy X rays: recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements : December 5, 2007
National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, Jun 26, 2008 - Health & Fitness - 61 pages
As part of its series of publications related to countermeasures against nuclear and radiological terrorism, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has prepared three commentaries on subjects related to the radiation protection and measurement aspects of security surveillance systems. This commentary, sponsored by the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office, focuses on the application of high-energy X-rays, produced by accelerators, in the detection of weapons and radioactive material at US border crossings. It provides an in-depth evaluation of two main aspects of Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography Systems (CAARS) operations. The first aspect involves the consideration of all aspects of CAARS radiation safety, including accelerator safety controls, a radiation protection plan for system operators, and an analysis of the range of doses that could be received. The second major area of discussion in the commentary involves CAARS radiation measurement techniques, instrumentation, and dosimetry. In addition, the primary elements of a CAARS quality assurance program are described. B&w photos and images are included. The commentary was prepared by Scientific Committee 6-5 on Radiation Protection and Measurement Issues Related to Cargo Scanning with High- Energy X-rays Produced by Accelerators. There is no subject index.
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Cargo Advanced Automated Radiography System Radiation
Radiation Measurement Techniques and Instrumentation
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absorbed dose acceptance testing Advanced Automated Radiography ALARA ALARA principle ANSI/HPS attenuation Automated Radiography System bremsstrahlung buildup cap CAARS facility CAARS operating calibration Cargo Advanced Automated cargo containers cargo conveyance Compton scattering contractor control limits devices dose rate dose-rate dosimetry effective dose calculations effective dose limit electron accelerator electron target ensure environmental evaluation exceed exclusion zone exposure factor fatal cancer high-energy high-Z material IAEA imaging in-beam inadvertently exposed inadvertently-exposed individual interaction interlock ion chamber ionizing radiation irradiation land-border mass energy-absorption coefficient maximum measuring dose millisievert mSv y-1 NCRP NCRP Commentary NCRP recommends neutron dose pair production passive detectors photoelectric effect photon energy photoneutron potential produced Protection and Measurements pulsed radiation fields radiation detector radiation protection radiation safety radiological range recombination risk scan speed scattering seaports sensitivity shielding skyshine special nuclear material thermoluminescent dosimeter tion typical voltage volume x-ray source