Biomechanics of the Upper Limbs: Mechanics, Modelling and Musculoskeletal Injuries

Front Cover
CRC Press, Jun 29, 2004 - Medical - 624 pages
1 Review
The repetitive tasks of various forms of manual work can lead to cumulative trauma disorders, increasing staff burn-out rates and the number of sick-days taken by employees. In addition, interest in upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders has grown as the service sector has claimed a larger share of the workforce. These factors introduce the need for an up-to-date text that combines basic biomechanics with practical bioengineering issues.

Biomechanics of the Upper Limbs: Mechanics, Modeling, and Musculoskeletal Injuries is an engineering oriented book focusing on upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders, as opposed to the more general introductions to cumulative trauma disorders and medical management related books. It covers musculoskeletal components of the upper extremities, their models, and the measurement and prediction of injury potential. Students and professionals will find it provides an excellent basic grounding in the subject.

Topics include:
  • A basic introduction to biomechanical principles
  • Gross structure of the musculoskeletal system, including bone and soft tissue
  • Organization of muscles and muscle anatomy, types of fibers, contractile theories, and muscle receptors
  • Modeling of muscle mechanics
  • Models of the upper limbs
  • Types of musculoskeletal disorders and the scientific evidence for risk factors, as well as epidemiology
  • Instrumentation for motion, pressure, force and nerve conduction measurements, and electromyography
  • Job and worksite analysis
  • Hand tools
  • Office environment seating and computer devices
  •   

    What people are saying - Write a review

    We haven't found any reviews in the usual places.

    Contents

    Introduction to Biomechanics
    1
    12 Basic Concepts
    2
    13 Coordinate Systems
    3
    14 Force Vector Algebra
    5
    15 Static Equilibrium
    8
    16 Anthropometry and Center of Mass Determination
    14
    17 Friction
    20
    18 Dynamics
    23
    65 The Scientific Research and Evidence for Occupational Risk Factors
    275
    652 Shoulder Disorders
    280
    653 Elbow Disorders
    282
    655 HandWrist Tendinitis
    286
    656 HandArm Vibration Syndrome
    288
    67 latrogenesis A Contrarian View
    291
    Questions
    294
    Problems
    296

    Questions
    28
    Problems
    29
    References
    31
    Structure of the Musculoskeletal System
    33
    22 The Skeletal System
    35
    23 Mechanical Properties of Bone
    40
    24 Soft Connective Tissue
    44
    25 Joints
    46
    252 Joint Lubrication
    49
    253 Wear and Osteoarthritis
    50
    Questions
    52
    References
    53
    Neuromuscular Physiology and Motor Control
    55
    32 Structure of Muscle
    57
    33 Basic Cell Physiology
    59
    34 The Nervous System
    63
    35 The ExcitationContraction Sequence
    65
    36 Motor Units
    68
    362 Motor Unit Twitch
    69
    37 Basic Muscle Properties Mechanics
    72
    372 Passive LengthTension Relationship
    73
    373 VelocityTension Relationship
    74
    374 Active State Properties
    76
    376 Fatigue and Endurance
    78
    38 Energy Metabolism and Heat Production
    79
    39 Receptors
    83
    391 Muscle Spindles
    84
    392 Golgi Tendon Organs
    85
    393 Other Receptors
    87
    Questions
    96
    Problems
    98
    Modeling of Muscle Mechanics
    101
    411 Partial Fraction Expansion
    102
    412 Transfer Functions
    108
    42 Viscoelastic Theory
    109
    43 Hills Muscle Models
    116
    431 Active Muscle Response
    119
    432 Tension Buildup
    121
    433 Stress Relaxation
    123
    434 Creep
    124
    435 Time Constant
    125
    44 Frequency Analysis
    126
    441 Generalized Approach
    127
    442 Magnitude and Phase Angle in the Frequency Domain
    128
    443 Magnitude and Phase Angle in the Laplace Domain
    133
    45 Frequency Analysis of Passive Muscle
    136
    46 Hatzes Multielement Model
    138
    47 Applications of the Hatze Muscle Model
    149
    48 Control Theory and Motor Control
    150
    482 FirstOrder System
    152
    483 SecondOrder System
    153
    484 Human Information Processing and Control of Movements
    160
    49 Root Locus Approach to Muscle Modeling
    164
    492 Muscle Spindle Model
    176
    493 Time Delays
    181
    494 Velocity Control
    184
    495 Reflex Stiffness
    185
    Questions
    189
    Problems
    190
    References
    191
    Models of the Upper Limbs
    195
    512 Joints of the Hand
    196
    513 Muscle of the Forearm Wrist and Hand
    197
    514 Flexor Digitorum Profundus and Flexor Digitorum Superficialis
    198
    515 Flexor Tendon Sheath Pulley Systems
    200
    516 Wrist Mechanics
    201
    517 Select Finger Anthropometry Data
    204
    52 Static TendonPulley Models
    206
    53 Dynamic TendonPulley Models
    210
    54 Complex Tendon Models
    212
    542 Optimization Methods
    213
    543 Combined Approaches
    214
    55 A TwoDimensional Hand Model
    215
    56 Direct Measurement Validation Studies
    221
    57 Critical Evaluation of Modeling Approaches
    223
    Questions
    227
    Problems
    228
    Musculoskeletal Disorders and Risk Factors
    233
    62 Common MSDs and Their Etiology
    234
    621 Tendon Disorders
    236
    622 Muscle Disorders
    237
    623 Nerve Disorders
    239
    624 Vascular Disorders
    242
    626 Bone and Cartilage Disorders
    243
    64 Epidemiologic Approach to MSDs
    250
    642 Statistical analyses
    258
    643 Multivariate Modeling
    267
    644 Quality of Epidemiological Research
    273
    References
    299
    Instrumentation
    311
    722 Calibration Methods
    313
    723 Static Measurements Range of Motion
    316
    724 Dynamic Measurements Angular Velocity and Acceleration
    317
    73 Pressure and Force Distribution Measurements
    320
    732 Force Sensing Electronic Components
    322
    733 Integrated Touch Glove System
    327
    74 Nerve Conduction Measurements
    330
    742 Nerve Stimulation and Recording
    332
    743 Response Measures
    337
    744 Limitations
    339
    75 Electromyography
    341
    751 EMG Instrumentation
    343
    752 EMG Analysis
    344
    Questions
    351
    Problems
    352
    Job and Worksite Analysis
    361
    82 Reliability and Validity of Assessment Tools
    362
    822 Reliability of Assessments
    363
    823 Reliability of Analysts
    365
    824 Accuracy and Precision
    370
    825 Applications
    373
    83 Initial Identification of Musculoskeletal Injury Problems
    376
    832 Surveys and Subjective Ratings
    377
    833 Limitations of Surveys
    380
    842 OWAS
    381
    843 Posture Targeting
    383
    844 RULA
    384
    846 Task Analyses
    387
    85 Quantitative Upper Limb WRMSD Risk Assessment Tools
    389
    852 Strain Index
    394
    854 Recent Developments
    400
    Questions
    407
    Problems
    408
    References
    410
    Hand Tools
    417
    912 Tools and Musculoskeletal Injuries
    418
    92 General Biomechanical Considerations of Tools
    419
    922 The Biomechanics of a Power Grip
    420
    923 The Biomechanics of a Precision Grip
    423
    924 Measurement of Skin Coefficient of Friction
    425
    925 Grip Force Coordination
    426
    926 Static Muscle Loading
    428
    927 Awkward Wrist Position
    430
    928 Tissue Compression
    431
    93 Handles for SingleHandled Tools
    432
    933 Handle Shape
    433
    934 Texture and Materials
    435
    94 Handles for TwoHandled Tools
    436
    942 Gender
    438
    95 Other Tool Considerations
    439
    953 Cloves
    440
    96 Agricultural and Forestry Tools
    441
    962 Axes and Hammers
    446
    963 Saws
    450
    964 Other Agricultural Tools
    451
    97 Industrial Tools
    452
    972 Screwdrivers
    453
    973 Knives
    454
    974 Meat Hooks
    455
    975 Power Tools
    457
    976 Railroad Tools
    460
    977 Mining Tools
    461
    Questions
    463
    Problems
    464
    The Office Environment
    473
    102 The Seated Workplace
    474
    1022 Seated Posture at a Computer Workstation
    479
    1023 Determination of Seated Comfort
    484
    1024 Seat Pressure
    487
    1025 SitStand ForwardSloping and Saddle Chairs
    490
    1026 Work Surface and Line of Sight
    495
    103 The Keyboard
    501
    1032 Split and Sloped Keyboards
    506
    1034 Chord Keyboards
    511
    104 The Mouse and Other CursorPositioning Devices
    513
    1042 The Mouse
    514
    1043 Mouse Alternatives
    517
    105 Notebooks and Handheld PCs
    518
    106 Control Measures
    519
    1062 Exercises
    520
    Questions
    522
    References
    523
    Glossary
    541
    Name Index
    571
    Subject Index
    591
    Copyright

    Common terms and phrases

    References to this book

    All Book Search results »

    Bibliographic information