Ecology and Control of Introduced Plants

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Cambridge University Press, May 15, 2003 - Business & Economics - 313 pages
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The global spread of plant species by humans is both a fascinating large scale experiment and, in many cases, a major perturbation to native plant communities. Many of the most destructive weeds today have been intentionally introduced to new environments where they have had unexpected and detrimental impacts. This 2003 book considers the problem of invasive introduced plants from historical, ecological and sociological perspectives. We consider such questions as 'What makes a community invasible?', 'What makes a plant an invader?' and 'Can we restore plant communities after invasion?' Written with advanced students and land managers in mind, this book contains practical explanations, case studies and an introduction to basic techniques for evaluating the impacts of invasive plants. An underlying theme is that experimental and quantitative evaluation of potential problems is necessary, and solutions must consider the evolutionary and ecological constraints acting on species interactions in newly invaded communities.
  

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Contents

Introduction
1
The socioeconomic background of plant introductions
6
Turning back the clock is restoration possible?
8
Biological control as an approach to introduced weeds
11
Promoting ecosystem management for native species
12
Conclusions
13
Planet of Weeds exotic plants in the landscape
14
how many and how costly are nonnative plant species?
17
Joint introductions common barberry and wheat stem rust
149
Sudden oak death and rhododendrons
151
White pine blister rust Cronartium ribicola
152
Pandemics of Dutch elm disease Ophiostoma ulmi and O novoulmi
154
Introduction of fungi for biological control of weeds
155
Uromycladiutn tepperianum on Acacia saligna in South Africa
158
The potential role of soil microbes in invasiveness
160
Preventing the introductions of plant diseases
161

Whats in a name?
20
Patterns of plant introductions
23
The ecological theory of colonization and invasion
34
Landscape ecology and invasive species
36
Conclusions
50
Biological invasions in the context of plant communities
51
Disturbance and succession
53
Grimes CSR model of succession
54
Disturbance and the invasion of plant species
56
Herbivory and introduced plant species
60
Interspecific competition and plant invasion
64
Part 2 The effects of invasive species on plant communities and ecosystems
79
Conclusions
88
Predicting invasiveness from life history characteristics
89
Seed germination and dispersal
96
Disturbance and seed persistence
99
Seed size and seed predation
103
Vegetative reproduction
106
Case study Phragmites australis a story of successful vegetative reproduction
110
Do life history characteristics predict invasiveness?
111
Predicting invasive species and the design of quarantine regulations
113
Conclusions
118
Population ecology and introduced plants
120
What determines plant population densities?
121
Selfthinning and the 32 rule
126
Are plants seed limited?
127
Demographic parameters
129
Monitoring populations
131
Life tables and key factor analysis
132
Population ecology of vegetatively reproducing plants
139
Case study Diffuse knapweed in British Columbia
140
Conclusions
146
Introduced plant diseases
147
Chestnut blight Cryphonectria parasitlca
148
Conclusions
162
Biological control of introduced plants
164
How successful is biological control?
165
Can we predict successful agents and vulnerable plants?
179
Can we predict what will be a successful biological control agent?
181
Is biological control safe?
191
Conclusions
193
Modeling invasive plants and their control
195
Modeling the impact of seed predators
199
Models of Scotch broom
203
Combining population models and experiments
208
The world is variable but models are not
212
Modeling invasions as they spread across habitats and landscapes
214
What models tell us about detecting invasions
219
Invasion speed for structured populations
221
Slowing the spread
222
Conclusions
223
Action against nonindigenous species
224
Manuals and advice
226
Physical control methods
227
Chemical control of nonindigenous plant species
230
Costs and benefits of control
231
Assessing control of nonindigenous species
233
Eradication as a goal
234
Increasing the chances of successful control
237
Who should take responsibility for introduced species?
239
The uncertain status of some invasive species
241
Conclusions
243
Genetically modified plants and final conclusions
244
Some concluding remarks
247
Appendix
251
References
271
Index
301
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 284 - JN (2002). Feedback with soil biota contributes to plant rarity and invasiveness in communities. Nature 417, 67-70.
Page 278 - Ehrenfeld, JG, Kourtev, P., and Huang, W. (2001) Changes in soil functions following invasions of exotic understory plants in deciduous forests. Ecological Applications 11: 1287-1300.
Page 300 - Valuing Ecosystem Services Lost to Tamarix Invasion in the United States," in Invasive Species in a Changing World, ed.
Page 274 - Are particular weeds more amenable to biological control? A reanalysis of mode of reproduction and life history.
Page 275 - University. Clemants, SE, and G. Moore. 2005. The changing flora of the New York Metropolitan Region. Urban Habitats 3:192-210. Available online at www.urbanhabitats.org. Costanza, R. 2001. Visions, values, valuation, and the need for an ecological economics.
Page 274 - Caswell, H. (2000). Prospective and retrospective perturbation analyses: their roles in conservation biology. Ecology, 81, 619-627.
Page 273 - Buchan, LAJ and DK Padilla. 1999. Estimating the probability of long-distance overland dispersal of invading aquatic species. Ecological Applications, 9, 254-265.

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About the author (2003)

Judith H. Myers is a Professor in the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences at the University of British Columbia, Canada.

Dawn R. Bazely is an Associate Professor in the Department of Biology at York University, Ontario, Canada.