Ecology and Control of Introduced Plants
Cambridge University Press, May 15, 2003 - Business & Economics - 313 pages
The global spread of plant species by humans is both a fascinating large scale experiment and, in many cases, a major perturbation to native plant communities. Many of the most destructive weeds today have been intentionally introduced to new environments where they have had unexpected and detrimental impacts. This 2003 book considers the problem of invasive introduced plants from historical, ecological and sociological perspectives. We consider such questions as 'What makes a community invasible?', 'What makes a plant an invader?' and 'Can we restore plant communities after invasion?' Written with advanced students and land managers in mind, this book contains practical explanations, case studies and an introduction to basic techniques for evaluating the impacts of invasive plants. An underlying theme is that experimental and quantitative evaluation of potential problems is necessary, and solutions must consider the evolutionary and ecological constraints acting on species interactions in newly invaded communities.
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The socioeconomic background of plant introductions
Turning back the clock is restoration possible?
Biological control as an approach to introduced weeds
Promoting ecosystem management for native species
Planet of Weeds exotic plants in the landscape
how many and how costly are nonnative plant species?
Joint introductions common barberry and wheat stem rust
Sudden oak death and rhododendrons
White pine blister rust Cronartium ribicola
Pandemics of Dutch elm disease Ophiostoma ulmi and O novoulmi
Introduction of fungi for biological control of weeds
Uromycladiutn tepperianum on Acacia saligna in South Africa
The potential role of soil microbes in invasiveness
Preventing the introductions of plant diseases
Whats in a name?
Patterns of plant introductions
The ecological theory of colonization and invasion
Landscape ecology and invasive species
Biological invasions in the context of plant communities
Disturbance and succession
Grimes CSR model of succession
Disturbance and the invasion of plant species
Herbivory and introduced plant species
Interspecific competition and plant invasion
Part 2 The effects of invasive species on plant communities and ecosystems
Predicting invasiveness from life history characteristics
Seed germination and dispersal
Disturbance and seed persistence
Seed size and seed predation
Case study Phragmites australis a story of successful vegetative reproduction
Do life history characteristics predict invasiveness?
Predicting invasive species and the design of quarantine regulations
Population ecology and introduced plants
What determines plant population densities?
Selfthinning and the 32 rule
Are plants seed limited?
Life tables and key factor analysis
Population ecology of vegetatively reproducing plants
Case study Diffuse knapweed in British Columbia
Introduced plant diseases
Chestnut blight Cryphonectria parasitlca
Biological control of introduced plants
How successful is biological control?
Can we predict successful agents and vulnerable plants?
Can we predict what will be a successful biological control agent?
Is biological control safe?
Modeling invasive plants and their control
Modeling the impact of seed predators
Models of Scotch broom
Combining population models and experiments
The world is variable but models are not
Modeling invasions as they spread across habitats and landscapes
What models tell us about detecting invasions
Invasion speed for structured populations
Slowing the spread
Action against nonindigenous species
Manuals and advice
Physical control methods
Chemical control of nonindigenous plant species
Costs and benefits of control
Assessing control of nonindigenous species
Eradication as a goal
Increasing the chances of successful control
Who should take responsibility for introduced species?
The uncertain status of some invasive species
Genetically modified plants and final conclusions
Some concluding remarks
agricultural areas associated Australia barberry beetles biological control agents biological control programs broom Chapter characteristics colonization competition Control of Weeds diffuse knapweed dispersal distribution disturbance ecology ecosystem effective environment environmental eradication established estimated evaluate example exotic species experimental extinction factors fecundity Figure flowering plants forest fungus genetic germination grass grasslands grazing herbivores host plant impact important increase influence insects interactions intermediate disturbance hypothesis introduced plant species introduced species invaders invasive species invasiveness of plants landscape measured monitoring mortality Myers native habitat native species natural enemies non-indigenous North America number of species parasitoids patches pathogens patterns plant communities plant density plant populations plots population density potential predict quadrat reduced relationship rosettes rust Salvinia sampling Scotch broom seed bank seed limited seed predators seed production seedling soil species diversity species richness spread stages studies successful biological control survival Table Tamarix target weed vegetative reproduction Zealand
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