Internal-combustion Engines: Their Principles and Applications to Automobile, Aircraft, and Marine Purposes (Google eBook)

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Ginn, 1920 - Internal combustion engines - 225 pages
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Page 176 - ... bearings. This lubrication system also followed the German practice in allowing the overflow in the main bearings to travel out the face of the crank cheeks to a scupper which collected this excess for crank-pin lubrication.
Page 111 - Flash Point of an oil is the lowest temperature at which the vapors arising therefrom ignite, without setting fire to the oil itself, when a small test flame is quickly brought near its surface and quickly removed.
Page 167 - ... necessity of having to open or close the valves at stated times; therefore, to open an adequately large passage for the gases it is necessary to open the valves earlier and close them later than at centers. That advancing the opening of the exhaust valve was of value was discovered on the early motors and is explained by the necessity of releasing a large amount of gas, the volume of which has been greatly raised by the heat of combustion. When the inlet valves were mechanically operated it was...
Page 173 - Angle between cylinders: In the Liberty the included angle between the cylinders is 45 degrees; in all other existing 12-cylinder engines it is 60 degrees. This feature is new with the Liberty engine, and was adopted for the purpose of bringing each row of cylinders nearer the vertical and closer together, so as to save width and head resistance. By the narrow angle greater strength is given to the crank case and vibration is reduced. Electric generator and ignition: A Delco ignition system is used....
Page 159 - ... where d is the outside diameter of the piston pin, and as a rule the bosses are slightly tapered, increasing in diameter toward the piston wall. Locking Piston Pins — The piston pin must be prevented from moving lengthwise in the piston bosses or "drifting.
Page 151 - ... especially in four-cylinder block motors where •compactness is the main feature there is no space between the cylinders for the passage of water. Under such circumstances the cooling effect is not even, and the stresses which obtain because of unequal expansion may distort the cylinder to some extent. The advantage of casting the cylinders in blocks is that a motor may be much shorter than it would be if individual castings were used. It is admitted that when the cylinders are cast together...
Page 142 - If the efficiency of the generator is known at the particular speed and output at which it is to be operated, a very accurate method of measuring the power of the engine becomes available.
Page 80 - When the engine is running and fuel is being drawn out of the float chamber to the jets, the valve does not alternately open and close, but takes an intermediate position such that the valve opening is just sufficient to supply the required amount of fuel and keep the level constant. This running level is usually about % inch below the standing level, and the vibration keeps the fuel splashing considerably above this level.
Page 38 - Blast-furnace gas differs from producer gas only in that it contains very little hydrogen, and therefore is like the gas that would be made in a producer working without steam. Blast-furnace gas is low in heating value, varying from 95 to 105 Btu per cu ft at 62° F. The gas as it comes from the blast furnace is charged with a large amount of dust, some of which is metallic oxide and readily falls out ; the remainder is principally silica and lime, which is very fine and light. To remove this fine...
Page 178 - June 1, and was submitted in the form of sketches at a joint meeting of the Aircraft (Production) Board and the Joint Army and Navy Technical Board, June 4. The first sample was an eight-cylinder model, delivered to the Bureau of Standards, July 3, 1917.

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