## Closure Strategies for Turbulent and Transitional FlowsTurbulence modelling is a critically important area in any industry dealing with fluid flow, having many implications for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. It also retains a huge interest for applied mathematicians since there are many unsolved problems. This book provides a comprehensive account of the state-of-the-art in predicting turbulent and transitional flows by some of the world's leaders in these fields. It can serve as a graduate-level textbook and, equally, as a reference book for research workers in industry or academia. It is structured in three parts: Physical and Numerical Techniques; Flow Types and Processes; and Future Directions. As the only broad account of the subject, it will prove indispensable for all working in CFD, whether academics interested in turbulent flows, industrial researchers in CFD interested in understanding the models embedded in their software (or seeking more powerful models) or graduate students needing an introduction to this vital area. |

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### Contents

FUTURE DIRECTIONS | 5 |

Linear and Nonlinear Eddy Viscosity Models | 9 |

LargeEddy Simulation of the Flow past Bluff Bodies | 12 |

Simulation of Coherent Eddy Structure in BuoyancyDriven Flows with | 22 |

SecondMoment Turbulence Closure Modelling | 47 |

Closure Modelling Near the TwoComponent Limit | 102 |

### Common terms and phrases

adverse pressure gradient algebraic stress model anisotropy tensor application approach boundary layer Cebeci channel flow Chapter complex flows computed Coriolis force correlation discussed dissipation rate Durbin eddy viscosity models effects elliptic relaxation equa equilibrium expansion coefficients Figure Fluid Flow Fluid Mech formulation Gatski Hadzic Hanjalic Heat and Fluid integration isotropic Jakirlic kinetic energy laminar length scale linear eddy viscosity linear EVMs mean flow mean velocity modifications near-wall region nonlinear eddy viscosity one-equation parameter pipe plane channel predictions pressure fluctuations production term proposed Reynolds number Reynolds stress model Rodi rotation rate tensor shear flows shear stress simple shear Spalart Speziale streamline curvature stress components stress production swirl tensor representation tion transition transport and viscous transport equation turbulence model turbulent closure models turbulent eddy viscosity turbulent flows turbulent kinetic energy turbulent stress turbulent transport two-component two-equation models UMIST vector viscous diffusion vorticity wall functions