Temporal Data and the Relational Model: A Detailed Investigation Into the Application of Interval and Relation Theory to the Problem of Temporal Database Management

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Morgan Kaufmann, 2003 - Computers - 422 pages
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Temporal database systems are systems that provide special support for storing, querying, and updating historical and/or future data. Current DBMSs provide essentially no temporal features at all, but this situation is likely to change soon for a variety of reasons; in fact, temporal databases are virtually certain to become important sooner rather than later, in the commercial world as well as in academia. This book provides an in-depth description of the foundations and principles on which those temporal DBMSs will be built. These foundations and principles are firmly rooted in the relational model of data; thus, they represent an evolutionary step, not a revolutionary one, and they will stand the test of time.

This book is arranged in three parts and a set of appendixes:

* Preliminaries: Provides a detailed review of the relational model, and an overview of the Tutorial D language.
* Laying the Foundations: Explains basic temporal data problems and introduces fundamental constructs and operators for addressing those problems.
* Building on the Foundations: Applies the material of the previous part to issues of temporal database design, temporal constraints, temporal query and update, and much more.
* Appendixes: Include annotated references and bibliography, implementation considerations, and other topics.

Key features:

* Describes a truly relational approach to the temporal data problem.
* Addresses implementation as well as model issues.
* Covers recent research on new database design techniques, a new normal form, new relational operators, new update operators, a new approach to the problem of "granularity," support for "cyclic point types," and other matters.
* Includes review questions and exercises in every chapter.
* Suitable for both reference and tutorial purposes.

  

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Contents

A REVIEW OF RELATIONAL CONCEPTS
3
12 The Running Example
4
13 Types
6
14 Relation Values
11
15 Relation Variables
16
16 Integrity Constraints
21
17 Relational Operators
23
18 The Relational Model
34
106 Both Current and Historical Relvars
180
107 Concluding Remarks
183
Exercises
184
INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS I CANDIDATE KEYS AND RELATED CONSTRAINTS
187
112 The Redundancy Problem
191
113 The Circumlocution Problem
192
114 The Contradiction Problem
194
115 Combining Specifications
196

Exercises
35
AN OVERVIEW OF TUTORIAL D
39
22 Scalar Type Definitions
41
23 Relational Definitions
42
24 Relational Expressions
43
25 Relational Assignments
47
26 Constraint Definitions
48
Exercises
49
LAYING THE FOUNDATIONS
51
Time and the Database
53
32 Timestamped Propositions
56
33 Valid Time versus Transaction Time
59
34 Some Fundamental Questions
61
Exercises
64
WHAT IS THE PROBLEM?
65
42 Semitemporalizing Suppliers and Shipments
67
43 Fully Temporalizing Suppliers and Shipments
70
Exercises
75
INTERVALS
77
52 Applications of Intervals
80
53 Point Types and Interval Types
81
54 A More Searching Example
85
Exercises
86
OPERATORS ON INTERVALS
89
62 Comparison Operators
91
63 Other Operators
93
64 Sample Queries
95
65 A Final Remark
97
THE EXPAND AND COLLAPSE OPERATORS
99
72 Expanded Form
100
73 Collapsed Form
101
74 Operating on Sets of Intervals
103
75 Treating Sets as Unary Relations
105
76 Operating on Nullary Relations
107
Exercises
108
THE PACK AND UNPACK OPERATORS
109
82 Packing Relations
111
83 Unpacking Relations
115
84 Sample Queries
120
85 Packing and Unpacking on No Attributes
123
86 Packing and Unpacking on Several Attributes
124
87 Further Points
131
Exercises
138
GENERALIZING THE RELATIONAL OPERATORS
141
92 Union Intersect and Difference
142
93 Restrict and Project
147
94 Join
149
95 Extend and Summarize
150
96 Group and Ungroup
151
97 Relational Comparisons
155
98 The Underlying Intuition
156
99 The Regular Relational Operators Revisited
158
Exercises
159
BUILDING ON THE FOUNDATIONS
161
DATABASE DESIGN
163
102 Current Relvars Only
166
103 Historical Relvars Only
169
104 Sixth Normal Form
172
105 The Moving Point Now
177
117 WHENTHEN without PACKED ON
197
118 Neither PACKED ON nor WHENTHEN
204
119 Candidate Keys Revisited
207
1110 PACKED ON Revisited
210
Exercises
211
INTEGRITY CONSTRAINTS II GENERAL CONSTRAINTS
213
122 The Nine Requirements
214
123 Current Relvars Only
216
124 Historical Relvars Only
220
125 Both Current and Historical Relvars
227
126 Syntactic Shorthands
239
127 Concluding Remarks
243
Exercises
244
DATABASE QUERIES
245
132 Current Relvars Only
247
133 Historical Relvars Only
252
134 Both Current and Historical Relvars
256
135 Virtual Relvars Can Help
260
Exercise
265
DATABASE UPDATES
267
142 Current Relvars Only
268
143 Historical Relvars Only I
271
144 Historical Relvars Only II
283
145 Both Current and Historical Relvars
286
146 Virtual Relvars Can Help
292
Exercises
295
STATED TIMES AND LOGGED TIMES
297
152 A Closer Look
299
153 The Database and the Log
302
154 Terminology
305
155 LoggedTime Relvars
308
156 Queries Involving LoggedTime Relvars
311
Exercises
312
POINT AND INTERVAL TYPES REVISITED
313
162 Type Inheritance
315
163 Point Types Revisited
321
164 Further Examples
324
165 Granularity Revisited
331
166 Interval Types Revisited
335
167 Cyclic Point Types
337
168 Continuous Point Types
344
169 Concluding Remarks
347
APPENDIXES
349
IMPLEMENTATION CONSIDERATIONS
351
A2 PACK and UNPACK I
352
A3 PACK and UNPACK II
354
A4 A Graphical Representation
361
A5 Other Relational Operators
365
A6 Relational Comparisons
378
A8 A Final Remark
381
GENERALIZING THE EXPAND AND COLLAPSE OPERATORS
383
B3 Sets of Sets
384
B4 Sets of Bags
385
B5 Other Kinds of Sets
387
REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
391
INDEX
411
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
421
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page ix - Time present and time past Are both perhaps present in time future, And time future contained in time past.
Page ix - Nothing puzzles me more than time and space; and yet nothing troubles me less, as I never think about them"- Lamb, letter to Southey, 9 Aug.
Page ix - Eternity is a terrible thought. I mean, where's it going to end ? TOM STOPPARD (b. 1937), Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead 'Dying,' he said to me, 'is a very dull, dreary affair.

About the author (2003)

C. J. Date has a unique stature in the database industry. Author or coauthor of well over 30 books on database management (including the bestselling An Introduction to Database Systems, currently in its 8th edition), he enjoys a reputation that's second to none for his ability to explain complex technical issues in a clear and understandable fashion. He was inducted into the Computing Industry Hall of Fame in 2004.

Hugh Darwen was employed in IBM's software development divisions from 1967 to 2004. In the early part of his career, he was involved in DBMS development; from 1978 to 1982, he was one of the chief architects of an IBM product called Business System 12, a product that faithfully embraced the principles of the relational model. He was an active participant in the development of the international standard for SQL (and related standards) from 1988 to 2004. Based in the UK, he currently teaches relational database theory at Warwick University and is a tutor and course development consultant for the Open University. He has written two books on database management as well as coauthoring several with C.J. Date. He has received honorary degrees from the University of Wolverhampton and the Open University.

Nikos A. Lorentzos is a Professor at the Agricultural University of Athens. He is mainly known for his research in temporal (and also in spatio-temporal) databases. He has participated in relevant European Union funded projects (prime researcher for the development of a Temporal DBMS). The temporal model he has proposed has been extensively evaluated by independent researchers with positive comments, it is decribed in books addressed to university students, it has been the basis of PhDs undertaken in Europe and it has attracted the interest of DBMS developers. He is co-editor of the book Spatiotemporal Databases: The Chorochronos Approach (spatio-temporal databases). He is active in Temporal, Spatial and Spatio-temporal Databases as well as in the development of DSSs and Expert Systems in the forestry and the agricultural domain.

Bibliographic information