By any means necessary

Front Cover
Pathfinder, 1992 - Biography & Autobiography - 191 pages
15 Reviews
Speeches tracing the evolution of Malcolm X's views on political alliances, women's rights, intermarriage, capitalism and socialism, and more.

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Review: By Any Means Necessary

User Review  - Jay Espy - Goodreads

Excellent read. Very refreshing to see Malcolm's thinking and how it changed in the 2 years before being killed. He was always self criticizing, always reflecting and always changing his approach ... Read full review

Review: By Any Means Necessary

User Review  - Camden Goetz - Goodreads

I like a lot of Malcolm X's ideas but this book was not a great place to see those. Lots of repetition and watering down/changing ideas for his audience, or just limitation by his interviewers. Read full review

Contents

Introduction
9
An interview by A B Spellman
23
Answers to questions at the Militant Labor Forum
36
Copyright

3 other sections not shown

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About the author (1992)

Born in Omaha, Nebraska, and the son of a Baptist minister, Malcolm Little grew up with violence. Whites killed several members of his family, including his father. As a youngster, he went to live with a sister in Boston where he started a career of crime that he continued in New York's Harlem as a drug peddler and pimp. While serving a prison term for burglary in 1952, he converted to Islam and undertook an intensive program of study and self-improvement, movingly detailed in "Autobiography of Malcolm X." He wrote constantly to Elijah Muhammad (Elijah Poole, 1897--1975), head of the black separatist Nation of Islam, which already claimed the loyalty of several of his brothers and sisters. Upon release from prison, Little went to Detroit, met with Elijah Muhammad, and dropped the last name Little, adopting X to symbolize the unknown African name his ancestors had been robbed of when they were enslaved. Soon he was actively speaking and organizing as a Muslim minister. In his angry and articulate preaching, he condemned white America for its treatment of blacks, denounced the integration movement as black self-delusion, and advocated black control of black communities. During the turbulent 1960's, he was seen as inflammatory and dangerous. In 1963, a storm broke out when he called President Kennedy's assassination a case of "chickens coming home to roost," meaning that white violence, long directed against blacks, had now turned on itself. The statement was received with fury, and Elijah Muhammad denounced him publicly. Shocked and already disillusioned with the leader because of his reputed involvement with several women, Malcolm X went on a pilgrimage to Mecca and then traveled to several African countries, where he was received as a fellow Muslim. When he returned home, he was bearing a new message: Islam is a religion that welcomes and unites people of all races in the Oneness of Allah. On the night of February 21, 1965, as he was preaching at Harlem's Audubon Ballroom, he was assassinated.

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