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abutments angles arch bridges arch ring bars beams bottom bridge building built carried cent chimney columns compression conduit construction counterforts cracks crete cross-section crown culvert depth designed diameter drawings of Fig elastic elastic limit embedded employed engineers equation example expanded metal extrados face factor of safety filling flexure floor floor-beams girders Hennebique hoops horizontal illustrated Ingalls Building intrados joints lagging layer length lineal foot load longitudinal masonry material Melan arch mixture modulus of elasticity mold mortar neutral axis piers piles pipe placed plaster plate Portland cement practice pressure reinforced concrete reinforced-concrete reinforcement consists retaining-walls rods roof sand sewer shear shell shown by Fig shows side slab soffit spaced span spandrel walls square foot square inch steel stirrups stresses struction structure surface Table tanks tensile tensile strength tensile stresses tension tests Thacher thick tion transverse vertical voussoir weight width wire
Page 225 - its total length is 371 ft. The reinforcement consists of twelve pairs of Thacher bars in each arch ring. The arch rings are of concrete composed of i part Portland cement, 2 parts sand, and 4 parts broken stone (run of crusher) ; the concrete of the abutments had the proportion of
Page 339 - embedded in neat cement were perfectly protected. Of the remaining specimens hardly one had escaped serious corrosion. The location of the rust-spot was invariably coincident with either a rod in the concrete or a badly rusted cinder. In the more porous mixtures the steel was spotted with alternate bright and badly rusted areas, each
Page 212 - ins. to 2 ins. above the soffit. The arch ring is 18 ins. thick at the crown and 30 ins. deep at the haunches. The concrete used consisted of i part Portland cement, 2 parts sand, and 4 parts broken stone, except that at the crown of the arch this mixture was enriched
Page 406 - amount used per day, about 20 cu. yds., it was found that there was practically no difference in the cost of mixing by machine or hand. The specifications required that both the sewers and conduits should be built in monolithic sections; that is, the contractor could build as long a section as he could finish in
Page 303 - ft. to 3 ft. The concrete foundation extends across the tunnel in a thick mass and has embedded in it a transverse reinforcement of old railway rails. All concrete was composed of i part Portland cement, 3 parts sand, and 6 parts broken stone. The amount of concrete averaged about 8.75 cu. yds. per lineal foot of tunnel.
Page 213 - Tensile strength, 60,000 Ibs. to 68,000 Ibs.; elongation in 8 ins., 28 per cent.; reduction of area at fracture, 40 per cent. The concrete used for the arch rings was composed of i part Portland cement, 2 parts sand, and 4 parts limestone broken to from
Page 421 - ins. with the course below. All joints shall be cleaned, wet, and neatly pointed. The faces of the walls shall be laid in true lines, and to the dimensions given on plans, and the corners shall have a chisel draft i in. wide carried up to the springing
Page 314 - ft. in length, such provision for expansion-joints shall be made as may be specified by the engineer of bridges or his assistants. Generally in the construction of large arches, or of smaller, long concrete arches, the work shall be subdivided into sections of approximately 25
Page 335 - designed with the assumption that: (i) Concrete should be reinforced in a vertical plane as well as in the horizontal plane; (2) The reinforcement should be inclined to the vertical, preferably with varying upward curvature approximating the line of principal tensile stress; (3) The metal should be distributed in proportion to the strains existing at
Page 353 - in. to 2 ins. The shell used was made of No. 20 sheet iron and the concrete was i part Portland cement, 2 parts sand, and 4 parts broken stone. The material penetrated was filled ground overlying rock at a depth of 14 ft. The heads of the piles were enclosed in concrete foundation walls as shown by Fig.