Hearing Aids

Front Cover
Thieme, 2001 - Medical - 504 pages
2 Reviews

This highly anticipated work is the complete, one-stop guide to hearing aids, covering everything you need to know to prescribe, select, fit, measure, and evaluate their performance. Dr. Dillon is a sought-after speaker and instructor throughout the world.

Some of the benefits of this acclaimed text:

  • COMPREHENSIVE--From basic concepts of hearing loss, hearing aid software and hardware, to assessment guidelines and results-oriented counseling methods, the book covers it all!
  • THEORETICALLY SOUND--All findings explained in detail to clarify concepts, making the book ideal as a standard reference for clinicians as well as a core text in graduate courses
  • PRACTICAL--Easy-to-use tips, tables, and procedures designed to be pinned to clinic walls for instant reference
  • ACCESSIBLE--Synopses, key paragraphs, and detailed materials help you progress from basic to highly sophisticated concepts easily
  • INTEGRATED AND CROSS-REFERENCED--Each cross-referenced chapter builds on previous chapters, with the flow and consistency of a single author
  • INNOVATIVE--You will discover research results and procedures that have not yet appeared in the literature, giving you an important professional edge

Opinion leaders in the field have been uniformly enthusiastic:

The book is smashing...Should be a required reference for anyone who deals with hearing aids. All of the materials, including an outstanding chapter on pediatric amplification, are presented in a practical and immediately useful manner. --Jerry Northern, author and editor, HearX*

Packed with concise, up-to-date, useful information concerning the selection and fitting of hearing aids. I'd highly recommend this text for graduate audiology students to anyone involved in hearing aid dispensing.--Gus Mueller, PhD, Adjunct Associate Professor, Vanderbilt University

  

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Contents

INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS
1
11 Problems Faced by People with Hearing Impairment
2
112 Decreased dynamic range
3
113 Decreased frequency resolution
4
114 Decreased temporal resolution
5
115 Deficits in combination
6
122 Linear amplifiers and gain
7
123 Saturation sound pressure level
9
818 Personality
221
8110 Tinnitus
222
some examples
223
82 The Upper Limit of Aidable Hearing Loss
226
821 Poor speech identification ability
227
822 Hearing aids or cochlear implants?
228
823 Hearing aids or tactile aids?
232
83 Medically Related Contraindications to Hearing Aid Fitting
233

13 Types of Hearing Aids
10
14 Historical Perspective
12
141 The acoustic era
13
143 The vacuum tube era
14
144 The transistor and integrated circuit era
15
145 The digital era
16
HEARING AID COMPONENTS
18
21 Block Diagrams
19
22 Microphones
21
222 Frequency response of microphones
22
223 Microphone imperfections
23
224 Directional microphones
25
225 Microphone location
28
231 Amplifier technology
29
233 Peak clipping and distortion
30
234 Output amplifiers
31
235 Compression amplifiers
33
24 Digital Circuits
34
242 Digital signal processors
36
251 Filter and tone control structures
37
252 Passive active and digital tone controls
38
26 Receivers
39
27 Acoustic Dampers
41
28 Telecoils
42
210 Remote Controls
43
211 Bone Conductors
44
212 Batteries
45
2123 Capacity and physical size
46
213 Concluding Comments
47
HEARING AID SYSTEMS
48
311 Custom hearing aids
49
313 Semimodular semicustom hearing aids
50
33 Digitally Programmable Analog Hearing Aid Systems
51
331 Programmers interfaces and software
52
332 Multimemory programmable hearing aids
53
341 Digital hardwired hearing aids
54
343 Sequential processing versus block processing
55
344 Specifications for digital hearing aids
56
345 Advantages of digital hearing aids
58
36 Induction Loops
59
362 Magnetic field strength
61
37 Radiofrequency Transmission
64
372 Coupling to the hearing aid
66
373 Combined FM and local microphones
68
38 Infrared Transmission
69
310 Strengths and Weaknesses of Remote Transmission Systems
70
311 Assistive Listening Devices
72
312 Concluding remarks
73
ELECTROACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE AND MEASUREMENT
74
41 Measuring Hearing Aids in Couplers and Ear Simulators
75
412 Test boxes
79
413 Measurement signals
80
414 Gainfrequency response and OSPL90frequency response
82
415 Inputoutput functions
84
416 Distortion
85
417 Internal noise
87
418 Magnetic response
88
419 ANSI and IEC standards
89
421 Positioning the probe for REAG measurement
91
422 Relationship between REAG coupler gain and ear simulator gain
93
423 Detecting incorrect aided measurements
95
43 Insertion Gain
96
431 Positioning the probe for insertion gain measurement
98
432 Relationship between insertion gain coupler gain and ear simulator gain
99
433 Control microphones and insertion gain
100
434 Detecting incorrect insertion gain measurements
101
442 Effects of wax
102
444 Hearing aid saturation
103
445 Loudspeaker orientation
104
446 Measurement signal characteristics
105
45 Aided Threshold Testing and Functional Gain
106
46 Feedback in Hearing Aids
107
462 Effects of feedback on sound quality
109
463 Probetube measurements and feedback
110
47 Troubleshooting Faulty Hearing Aids
111
48 Concluding Comments
113
HEARING AID EARMOLDS EARSHELLS AND COUPLING SYSTEMS
117
51 Earmold and earshell physical styles
120
512 ITE ITC and CIC earshell styles
122
52 Overview of Earmold and Earshell Acoustics
123
531 Effects of vents on hearing aid gain and OSPL90
126
532 Venting and the occlusion effect
130
533 Effects of vents and leaks on feedback oscillations
134
534 Parallel versus Y or diagonal vents
136
Tubing Horns and Constrictions
137
542 Specialpurpose earhooks
142
55 Dampers
143
56 Specific Tubing Damping and Venting Configurations
144
58 Ear Impressions
146
582 Ear impression techniques for CICs and high gain hearing aids
149
583 Ear impression materials
151
59 Earmolds and Earshells
152
593 Instant earmolds and hearing aids
155
510 Concluding Comments
157
COMPRESSION SYSTEMS IN HEARING AIDS
159
Reducing the Signals Dynamic Range
160
62 Basic characteristics of a compressor
161
622 Static compression characteristics
164
623 Input and output control
167
624 Multichannel compression
169
632 Reducing intersyllabic and interphonemic intensity differences
170
633 Reducing differences in longterm level
172
634 Increasing sound comfort
173
635 Normalizing loudness
175
636 Maximizing intelligibility
177
638 Empirical approaches
180
65 Benefits and Disadvantages of Different Compression Systems
181
651 Compression relative to linear amplification
182
652 Benefits of multichannel relative to singlechannel compression
184
66 Concluding Comments
186
ADVANCED SIGNAL PROCESSING SCHEMES
187
71 MultiMicrophone and Other Directional Hearing Aids
188
712 Adaptive arrays
191
72 SingleMicrophone Noise Reduction
195
73 Feedback Reduction
198
732 Feedback reduction by phase control
200
733 Feedback reduction by feedback path cancellation
201
734 Feedback reduction by frequency shifting
202
75 Speech Cue Enhancement
204
76 Concluding Comments
207
ASSESSING CANDIDACY FOR HEARING AIDS
209
81 The Lower Limit of Aidable Hearing Loss
211
811 Pure tone loss and audiogram configuration
213
812 Speech identification ability
215
814 Listening environment needs and expectations
216
815 Cosmetic concerns
219
816 Manipulation and management
220
PRESCRIBING HEARING AID PERFORMANCE
234
91 General Concepts Behind a Prescriptive Approach and a Brief History
235
92 Gain and Frequency Response Prescription for Linear Amplification
239
923 DSL
242
POGO II NALRP and DSL
243
93 Gain Frequency Response and InputOutput Functions for Nonlinear Amplification
249
932 IHAFFContour
250
933 Madsen Aurical method
251
934 ScalAdapt
252
935 FIG6
253
936 DSLio
254
937 NALNL1
255
938 Comparison of procedures
256
939 Prescribing compression thresholds
260
94 Allowing for Conductive and Mixed Hearing Losses
262
95 Selecting Options for Multimemory Hearing Aids
264
951 Response alternatives for different environments and listening criteria
265
952 Candidates for multimemory hearing aids
266
96 Prescribing OSPL90
267
avoiding discomfort damage and distortion
268
963 OSPL90 prescription
270
964 Prescribing OSPL90 at different frequencies
272
965 OSPL90 for nonlinear hearing aids
275
97 Excessive Amplification and Subsequent Hearing Loss
276
98 Concluding Comments
278
SELECTING AND ADJUSTING HEARING AIDS
281
CIC ITC ITE BTE Spectacle Aid or Body Aid
282
102 Selecting Hearing Aid Features
284
1021 Volume control
285
1024 Directional microphones
286
1031 Selecting a signal processing scheme
287
1032 Choosing a prescription procedure
288
104 Overview of Hearing Aid Selection and Adjustment
289
105 Twelve Steps for Selecting and Adjusting Programmable Hearing Aids
290
106 Eleven Steps for Selecting and Adjusting Nonprogrammable Hearing Aids
293
107 Allowing for Individual Ear Size and Shape in the Coupler Prescription
297
108 Allowing for Surgically Altered Ear Canals
300
1011 Concluding Comments
301
PROBLEM SOLVING AND FINETUNING OF HEARING AIDS
302
111 Solving Common Problems
303
1112 Earmold or earshell discomfort
304
1113 Poor earmold or earshell retention
305
1115 Feedback oscillation
307
1116 Tonal quality
308
112 Systematic Finetuning Procedures
312
1122 Absolute rating of sound quality
314
1124 Adaptive parameter adjustment by paired comparisons
316
1125 Adaptive finetuning by absolute rating of quality
318
1126 Finetuning at home with multimemory hearing aids
320
COUNSELING THE NEW HEARING AID WEARER
322
121 Understanding Hearing Loss
323
122 Acquiring a Hearing Aid
325
123 Using Hearing Aids
327
125 Care of Hearing Aids
331
126 Hearing Strategies
332
1262 Manipulating social interactions
333
1263 Manipulating the environment
335
1264 Teaching hearing strategies
337
128 Communication Training
338
129 Avoiding Hearing AidInduced Hearing Loss
339
1210 Assistive Listening Devices
340
1213 Structuring Appointments
342
12132 The fitting appointments
343
12134 The power of groups
344
1214 Concluding Comments
347
ASSESSING THE OUTCOMES OF HEARING REHABILITATION
349
131 Speech Identification Testing
351
1312 Role of speech testing in evaluating benefit
352
132 Selfreport Questionnaires for Assessing Benefit
353
1322 Practical selfreport measures
356
133 Meeting Needs and Goals
359
134 Assessing Usage Problems and Satisfaction
363
135 Changes in Outcomes with Time after Fitting
366
136 Impact of Hearing Aids on General Health and Quality of Life
368
137 Concluding Comments
369
BINAURAL AND BILATERAL CONSIDERATIONS IN HEARING AID FITTING
370
141 Binaural Effects in Localization
372
1412 Effects of hearing loss on localization
374
142 Binaural Effects in Detection and Recognition
376
1422 Binaural squelch in noise
377
1423 Binaural redundancy
379
1424 Binaural loudness summation
380
1432 Sound quality
383
1434 Localization
385
1435 Suppression of tinnitus
387
144 Disadvantages of Bilateral Fittings
388
1443 Selfimage
389
145 Tests of Bilateral Advantage
390
1452 The sensitivity of speech tests for assessing bilateral advantage
391
1453 Role for speech tests in assessing bilateral advantage
392
1454 Localization tests
394
146 Fitting Asymmetrical Hearing Losses
395
1462 Better ear versus poorer ear for unilateral fittings
396
FM and CROS
399
148 Effect of Bilateral vs Unilateral Fitting on Electroacoustic Prescriptions
402
149 Concluding Comments
403
SPECIAL HEARING AID ISSUES FOR CHILDREN
404
151 Sensory Experience and Deprivation
405
152 Assessment of Hearing Loss
406
1522 Small ears and calibration issues
407
153 Hearing Aid and Earmold Features and Styles
408
1532 Earmolds
410
1533 FM wireless transmission systems
411
154 Prescribing Amplification for Children
412
1542 Thresholdbased versus loudnessbased procedures
415
1543 Allowing for small ear canals
416
155 Verifying Realear Performance
419
157 Helping Parents
425
158 Hearing Habilitation Goals
428
1581 Goals and strategies for infants
429
1582 Goals and strategies for toddlers
430
159 Teenagers and Cosmetic Concerns
431
1511 Concluding Comments
433
CROS BONECONDUCTION AND IMPLANTED HEARING AIDS
434
1611 Simple CROS aids
435
1612 Bilateral CROS BICROS aids
439
1613 Stereo CROS CRISCROS aids
440
1614 Transcranial CROS aids
441
162 Boneconduction Hearing Aids
442
1623 Prescribing electroacoustic characteristics for boneconduction hearing aids
444
1624 Disadvantages of boneconduction hearing aids
447
1632 Middleear implants
449
164 Concluding Comments
450
REFERENCES
451
INDEX
487
Copyright

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About the author (2001)

Professor of Audiology, The University of Akron School of Speech-Language Pathology Audiology, Akron, OH, USA

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