The water powers of Wisconsin, Issue 20 (Google eBook)

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Published by the state, 1906 - Geology - 354 pages
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Page 4 - In the table of monthly discharge the column headed " Maximum " gives the mean flow for the day when the mean gage height was highest. As the gage height is the mean for the day, it does not indicate correctly the stage when the water surface was at crest height and the corresponding discharge was consequently larger than given in the maximum column.
Page 78 - Log jams and sunken logs affect the discharge at times. Discharge measurements are made from the upstream side of the bridge, to which the gage is attached. A standard chain gage, attached to the upstream side of the bridge, was read during 1906 by Andrew Johnson; length of chain, 22.85 feet. The bench mark is the top of parapet wall of left abutment, extreme downstream end, near front face, marked with white paint ; elevation, 21.52 feet. The reference point is the center of gage pulley; elevation,...
Page 4 - ... for the day when the mean gage height was highest. As the gage height is the mean for the day, it does not indicate correctly the stage when the water surface was at crest height, and the corresponding discharge was consequently larger than given in the maximum column. Likewise, in the column of "Minimum" the quantity given is the mean flow for the day when the mean gage height was lowest. The column headed "Mean" is the average flow in cubic feet for each second during the month.
Page 14 - Census, 1900, pt. 1, p. 293. age of the water to the lakes and rivers. It is only fair, however, to call attention to the fact that large areas of the original timber consumed by forest fires have been replaced by a second growth of both hard and soft timber, much of it in the form of dense thickets, which shade and protect the ground more effectually even than the original forest.
Page 2 - Wisconsin, volume 3, 1880, will be found good detailed descriptions of the Lake Superior rivers from the standpoint of a geologist. Very reliable information regarding the upper headwaters of the larger rivers is given in the reports of the Chief of Engineers, US Army, for the years 1879-1883, inclusive, to which frequent reference is herein made. This work of surveying reservoir sites involved the running of many hundred miles of levels, thus securing numerous water levels on lakes and rivers.
Page 190 - ... under water in high floods. The bed of the stream is gravel and sand and is probably permanent. The current is swift. Discharge measurments are made from the lower side of the steel highway bridge. The initial point for soundings is the inner face of the right abutement at the downstream side. The gage is an iron staff attached to the downstream face of the first pier from the right bank. The gage readings for 1906 were furnished by NO Swift, the United States AVeather Bureau observer at Chippewa...
Page 275 - The Milwaukee river has exceptionally good railroad facilities. The lower half of the river is paralleled by both the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul and the Chicago and Northwestern railroad, the former on the right and the latter on the left side of the river. Between Kewaskum and West Bend the Chicago and Northwestern railroad...
Page 9 - A wide and comparatively flat highland crosses the northern part of the State. This divide varies in elevation from 1,900 feet in the eastern part to 1,000 feet in the western part, and extends to within 30 miles of Lake Superior. From it the rivers descend radially in all directions except eastward. Owing to the fact that Lakes Superior and Michigan bound the State on the north and east, while...
Page 280 - The surface is moderately hilly varying from 750 feet where the river enters the state of Illinois to 1,100 feet above the sea on the crests of the Kettle Range. The rise from the interior of the valley is gradual, and usually the hilltops are not more than 100 feet above the intervening valleys. This low uneven topography has led to the formation of an intricate tributary system with numerous spring fed lakes."1 These lakes occur chiefly in an eastern and western group, the former comprising about...
Page 91 - River through the present Wisconsin River Valley between Portage and Prairie du Chien. In the upper half of its course Wolf River has formed its bed in the pre-Cambrian crystalline rocks, and in this distance the descent of the river is very rapid. At the Chicago and Northwestern railway crossing, 2 miles west of Lenox, the river has an elevation of 1,562 feet above the sea. In the 80 miles between this point and Shawano the river descends 774 feet, or 9.7 feet per mile. This steep gradient causes...

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