Forms of servitude in Northern and Central Europe: decline, resistance, and expansion
In the nineteenth and early twentieth century it was assumed that nearly all agricultural labourers in medieval Europe were serfs. Serfdom was distinct from slavery in that serfs were recognized as something more than chattels. They could contract legitimate marriages, hold personal property and they could contract legitimate marriages, hold personal property and they could not be moved around at will In fact, so closely were they tied to the land they tilled that they were prohibited from leaving it. Thus serfs were unfree in the sense of being dependents of their landlords and these landlords controlled many aspects of their lives, but serfs had a degree of communal, familial and individual identity and autonomy. There is no modern, synthetic book on medieval serfdom that compares regions or draws general conclusions about it. This work attempts such a synthesis and also shows avenues of future research, but most importantly it is intended to reorient attention to the importance of serfdom in the structure of medieval society.
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Abgaben actes agrarian allem Allgäu andere anderen Andermann Artem Artikel Baden bäuerliche bäuerlichen Bauern Bauernkrieg Beispiel Berchtesgaden Blickle chapitre charter charters chevage Danish Denmark dependence deutschen Dienste Dopsch earlier Ebrach economic eigen eigenleute Eigenleuten Einsiedeln erst Eschwege estate feudalism feuds fifteenth century formariage Franconie Franz free freedom Freiheit frühen Gericht Geschichte Gesellschaft Göttingen Grundherrschaft hatten Herren Herrschaft Hintersassen holdings homines hommes de corps Jahre Jahrhundert Jutland Kempten Keudel King Klein Kloster Klosters konnte land landowners Laon Laonnois late Middle Ages legal Leibeigene Leibeigenen Leibeigenschaft Leibherrschaft Leute lords mainmorte medieval Mittelalter movement Neuzeit peasantry peasants personal protection Quellen Rechte right Rösener royal Saint-Claude Salzburg same Sancti Schwebda Sealand seigneur seigneurial serfdom serfs servage servile servitude social Spätmittelalter Stadt statut StiAE Stuttgart tenanciers tenure Territorium thirteenth time Ulbrich Untertanen Urbar Urkunden villages waren Wilhelm Friedrich word wurde wurden Württemberg Wurtzbourg Würzburg XVe siècle