## The elements of logic |

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### Contents

THE LOGIC OF TRUTH FUNCTIONS | 87 |

THE LOGIC OF QUANTIFICATION | 139 |

THE LOGIC OF CATEGORICAL SENTENCES | 147 |

Copyright | |

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### Common terms and phrases

ambiguity analogy antecedent argu argument is valid believe called categorical sentence cause chain argument clusion colder column component compound sentence conclusion conj conjunction consider contains contradiction deduction definition degree of probability dice discuss disjunction equiv everything evidence example existential instantiation existential quantification explain expression F F F F T F fallacy Figure formal fallacy hypothesis imply inconsistency inductive argument inductive reasoning infer invalid kind liquid logical form lung cancer means method mistake modus ponens modus tollens Mx D Px necessarily negation sign observed instances original sentence p v q person philosophers possible predicate principles rain regards truth rules sense simp smoking solid someone speaker stipulative definition Suppose swans syllogism symbolized tautology tences term tion truth and falsity truth or falsity truth table truth-functional truth-functionally universal quantification universe of discourse validly variable Venn diagrams word