Treatment Wetlands, Second Edition (Google eBook)

Front Cover
CRC Press, Jul 16, 2008 - Technology & Engineering - 1016 pages
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Completely revised and updated, Treatment Wetlands, Second Edition is still the most comprehensive resource available for the planning, design, and operation of wetland treatment systems. The book addresses the design, construction, and operation of wetlands for water pollution control. It presents the best current procedures for sizing these systems, and describing the intrinsic processes that combine to quantify performance.


The Second Edition covers:

  • New methods based on the latest research
  • Wastewater characterization and regulatory framework analyses leading to detailed design and economics
  • State-of-the-art procedures for analyzing hydraulics, hydrology, substrates and wetlands biogeochemistry
  • Definition of performance expectations for traditional pollutants such as solids, oxygen demand, nutrients and pathogens, as well as for metals and a wide variety of individual organic and inorganic chemicals
  • Discussion of methods of configuration, construction, and vegetation establishment and startup considerations
  • Ancillary benefits of human use and wildlife habitat
  • Specific examples of numerous applications
  • Extensive reference base of current information

The book provides a complete reference that includes: detailed information on wetland ecology, design for consistent performance, construction guidance and operational control through effective monitoring. Case histories of operational wetland treatment systems illustrate the variety of design approaches presented allowing you to tailor them to the needs of your wetlands treatment projects. The sheer amount of information found in Treatment Wetlands, Second Edition makes it the resource you will turn to again and again.

  

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Contents

126 FECAL COLIFORM REMOVAL IN SSF WETLANDS
500
Effect of Vegetation
501
Effect of Depth
503
FirstOrder Removal Models
505
Rate Constants
506
Temperature Coefficients
507
Variability
508
Miscellaneous Bacteria
509

Treatment Wetlands in Austria New Zealand Asia and South America
18
SUMMARY
19
Hydrology and Hydraulics
21
Mean Water Depth
22
Overall Water Mass Balances
26
The Wetland Water Budget
33
22 FWS WETLAND HYDRAULICS
34
Friction Equations for FWS Wetland Flows
36
Wetland Data
39
23 HSSF WETLAND HYDRAULICS
42
Correlations for Hydraulic Conductivity of Clean Bed Porous Media
44
HSSF Water Elevation Profiles
49
Flooded Operation
50
Flow Stratification
51
24 VF WETLAND HYDRAULICS
52
Intermittent Downflow Beds
53
Vertical Flow Tracer Tests
55
Clogging
56
SUMMARY
57
Treatment Wetland Vegetation
59
31 ECOLOGY OF WETLAND FLORA
60
Wetland Algae
61
Wetland Macrophytes
64
Oxygen Transport as a Treatment Function
69
32 BIOMASS AND GROWTH
70
Fertilizer Response
71
Seasonal Patterns
72
Individual Plants
74
33 LITTERFALL AND DECOMPOSITION
76
Decomposition
77
Combined Effects of Successive Cohorts
79
Mineral Constituents of Litter
80
Accretion
81
Background Concentrations
82
Wastewater Stresses
83
34 VEGETATIVE COMMUNITIES IN TREATMENT WETLANDS
84
Submerged Plants
85
Unintended Floating Mats in Treatment Wetlands
88
Floating Mat Constructed Wetlands
89
Woody Plants
90
Woody Plants in Stormwater Wetlands
92
Emergent Soft Plants
96
Examples of Modern Emergent Community Choices
97
35 WEEDS
99
SUMMARY
100
Energy Flows
101
Heating or Cooling of the Water
105
Thermal Inertia
106
42 EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
107
Surface Flow Wetlands
109
Size Effects on ET
110
Flows into the Root Zone
112
43 WETLAND WATER TEMPERATURES
113
ShortTerm Cycles
115
Predicting Wetland Water Balance Temperatures
118
Water Temperature Variability
119
The Accommodation Zone
121
44 COLD CLIMATES
125
Spatial Extent and Distribution of Ice in FWS Wetlands
126
Insulation of HSSF Wetlands
129
Warm Water Influents to HSSF Wetlands
131
Air Water and Soil Chemical Interactions
133
52 OXYGEN DYNAMICS IN TREATMENT WETLANDS
134
Biochemical Production of Oxygen
135
Plant Oxygen Transfer
137
Biological and Chemical Oxygen Consumption
138
Wetland Profiles
139
Trends and Variability
143
53 VOLATILIZATION
144
Methane
146
Carbon Dioxide
147
Greenhouse Effects
148
54 OXIDATIONREDUCTION POTENTIAL
149
Redox Potentials in Treatment Wetlands
151
Subsurface Flow Wetlands
153
Wetlands Treating Acid Mine Drainage
157
Substrate Effects
158
56 ALKALINITY AND ACIDITY
159
SUMMARY
161
Representing Treatment Performance
163
Intersystem Variability
164
Replication
165
62 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATIONS OF TREATMENT PERFORMANCE
166
Perspectives Derived from the Loading Graph
167
Pitfalls of Graphical Representations
168
63 MASS BALANCES
169
Chemical Terminology
170
64 PROCESSES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO POLLUTANT REMOVALS
172
Chemical Networks
174
Plant Uptake
175
Seasonal Cycles
176
Interpretation of Data
177
Models for Internal Hydraulics
179
66 REACTION RATE MODELS
186
Batch versus Flow Systems
188
Mixtures Weathering and the PkC Model
190
Synoptic Error
193
67 OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING TREATMENT PERFORMANCE
194
Temperature and Season
196
Water Losses and Glans
197
Interactions with Solids
198
System StartUp
199
68 DANGERS OF EXTRAPOLATING WETLAND PERFORMANCE DATA
200
Summary
201
Suspended Solids
203
Solids Characterization
205
72 PARTICULATE PROCESSES IN FWS WETLANDS
206
Filtration versus Interception
209
Resuspension
210
Chemical Precipitates
211
Biological Sediment Generation
213
73 TSS REMOVAL IN FWS WETLANDS
216
Internal Cycling
217
Seasonal and Stochastic Effects
218
InputOutput Relations
220
Open Water Areas
223
Submerged Aquatic Vegetation SAV
226
Filtration and Interception
227
Accretion and Bed Clogging
228
Seasonal and Stochastic Effects
229
InputOutput Relations
230
76 TSS REMOVAL IN VF WETLANDS
232
InputOutput Relations
234
SUMMARY
235
Carbon and Biochemical Oxygen Demand
237
Wetland Chemistry of Carbon
238
Organic Carbon
239
Carbon Processing in Wetland Nicromass and Soils
240
82 BOD REMOVAL IN FWS WETLANDS
241
Annual InputOutput Concentration Relations
242
Model Curves
244
Variability in Annual Performances
246
Seasonal Trends
249
83 BOD REMOVAL IN HSSF WETLANDS
253
FirstOrder Modeling
255
Graphical Relations
257
Temperature Effects
258
Seasonal Trends
260
84 BOD REMOVAL IN VF WETLANDS
264
FirstOrder Modeling
265
Seasonal Effects
266
Nitrogen
267
Ammonia
268
Biomass
270
93 NITROGEN TRANSFORMATIONS IN WETLANDS
272
Physical Processes
273
Theoretical Considerations
276
Microbial Processes
277
Nitrification of Ammonia
279
Denitrification
280
Aerobic Denitrification
284
94 VEGETATION EFFECTS ON NITROGEN PROCESSING
285
The Effects of Vegetation Growth and Cycling
286
Accretion of Nitrogenous Residuals
288
Harvest to Remove Nitrogen
289
Soil and Sediment Effects on Nitrogen Processing
290
Implications of the Nitrogen Mass Balance Network
296
Background Concentrations of Organic Nitrogen
298
Rates and Rate Constants
299
97 PERFORMANCE FOR TKN
301
Background Concentrations of TKN
302
Rates and Rate Constants
303
98 PERFORMANCE FOR TOTAL NITROGEN
308
Background Concentrations of Total Nitrogen
310
Intrasystem Variability
314
99 PERFORMANCE FOR AMMONIA
316
Reduction of Ammonia in HSSF Wetlands
318
Reduction of Ammonia in VF Wetlands
322
Background Concentration of Ammonia
323
Intrasystem Variability
331
910 PERFORMANCE FOR OXIDIZED NITROGEN
335
Background Concentrations of Nitrate
338
Intrasystem Variability
342
911 MULTISPECIES NITROGEN MODELING
343
Sequential Nitrogen Models in the Literature
344
SUMMARY
347
Phosphorus
349
102 WETLAND PHOSPHORUS STORAGES
351
Soils and Sediments
354
103 PHOSPHORUS PROCESSING IN FWS WETLANDS
357
Biomass Storage and Cycling
359
Herbivory and Phosphorus Movement
363
Accertion
364
Particulate Settling
365
Soil Phosphorus Release
367
Atmospheric Phosphorus Processes
369
104 SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PHOSPHORUS EFFECTS IN FWS WETLANDS
371
Phosphorus Gradients in FWS Treatment Wetlands
372
105 PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL IN FWS WETLANDS
374
Loading Considerations
375
106 FWS WETLAND DETAILED PHOSPHORUS MODELING
382
Phosphorus Models for Everglades Wetlands
383
Anticipated Excursion Frequencies
384
108 LONGEVITY OF PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL IN FWS WETLANDS
386
Historical Unplanned Projects
387
Reasons for Low or Negative Reduction
388
Biomass Cycling
394
Chemical Precipitation
395
Effect of Bid Sorption of Phosphorus Movement
396
1011 PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL IN SUBSURFACE FLOW WETLANDS
399
Stochastic Variability
401
Halogens Sulfur Metals and Metalloids
403
Bromide and Bromine
406
Fluoride and Fluorine
407
112 ALKALI METALS
408
Magnesium
410
114 SULFUR
413
Hydrogen Sulfide
414
Oxidation of Sulfur and Sufides
416
Performance of Wetlands for Sulfur Removal
417
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
419
Sorption Relations
420
Equilibrium Metal Chemistry Calculations
421
Storage in Plants
423
116 THE OXIDE FORMERS
426
Aluminum
431
Manganese
434
117 HEAVY METALS
438
Nickel
444
Lead
447
Cadmium
453
Chromium
457
Wetland Processing and Storage of Zinc
462
Mercury
466
118 METALLOIDS
470
Boron
473
Selenium
475
SUMMARY
480
Pathogens
483
122 PATHOGEN REMOVAL PROCESSES
485
Predation
486
Mortality and Regrowth
487
Reintroduction
488
123 FECAL COLIFORM REMOVAL IN FWS WETLANDS
489
InputOutput Relation for Fecal Coliforms
494
124 REMOVAL OF OTHER INDICATOR BACTERIA IN FWS WETLANDS
496
Fecal Streptococcus
497
Wildlife Pathogens
499
128 PARASITE AND VIRUS REMOVAL IN SSF WETLANDS
511
Viruses
515
Organic Chemicals
517
Alkanes
520
132 CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS
522
Chlorinated Ethenes
523
133 ORGANIC CHEMICALS
524
Deicing Compounds
527
Phenols
528
Surfactants
530
Miscellaneous Hydrocarbons
531
Atrazine
532
135 CYANIDE
535
SUMMARY
537
EventDriven Wetlands
539
Incoming Concentrations and Loads
541
Hydrology of Pulsed and Seasonal Systems
543
Flow and Capture
545
142 TECHNOLOGY STATUS
547
Agricultural Stormwater
549
Industrial Stormwater
550
Batch Systems
551
Combined Sewer Overflow CSO
553
Dynamic Responses
554
144 PHOSPHORUS IN EVENTDRIVEN WETLANDS
555
Event Sequences
558
Urban Stormwater
559
Agricultural Runoff
560
Ammonia Pulses
562
Nitrogen Reduction in Urban Stormwater
564
146 METALS IN EVENTDRIVEN WETLANDS
565
147 PESTICIDES IN EVENTDRIVEN WETLANDS
568
Variability
570
Implementation
571
Evolution of Sizing Methods
573
FirstOrder Modeling
574
Loading Specifications
575
Regression Equations
576
152 FREE WATER SURFACE WETLANDS
577
154 HORIZONTAL SUBSURFACE FLOW WETLANDS
578
Evolution of HSSF Wetland Design in North America
580
Reflections on Old HSSF Design Procedures
582
Loading Specifications
584
Computer Models
585
Temperature Coefficients
586
LoadingBased FWS SizingAn Example
587
Exponential Decline Models
588
158 A PERFORMANCEBASED SIZING ALGORITHM
589
Current Manuals
590
SUMMARY
591
Design Basis
593
Soils and Geology
594
Altitude
595
Biological Conditions
596
Water Quantity
597
Actual Water Use
598
Water Quality
599
163 CHARACTERIZATION OF OTHER WASTEWATERS
602
Pulp and Paper Wastewater
603
Animal Industry Wastewaters
604
164 TREATMENT GOALS
606
Interfacing to Reuse
607
Other Design Parameters
609
165 CLIMATE AND THE WATER BUDGET
610
Rainfall
611
Temperature
612
166 SELECTION OF WETLAND TYPE
614
FWS or HSSF?
615
Other Natural Systems
619
167 PRE AND POSTTREATMENT REQUIREMENTS
621
Excessive Nitrogen
622
Excessive Sulfide
623
Postwetland Requirements
624
Sizing of FWS Wetlands
627
Pollutant Mass Balances
628
The Case of Nitrogen
630
Load Reduction versus Concentration Reduction
632
172 AREA COMPUTATIONS
633
Minimum Load Reduction Criterion
634
C N and P Cycles
635
174 CHEMICAL SUPPLY CONSTRAINTS
638
Oxygen Supply
639
175 ADJUSTMENTS FOR SEASONALITY
641
Wetland Water Temperature
642
Temperature Coefficients
643
Trend Amplitudes
644
Winter Storage versus Winter Operation
645
176 STORMWATER WETLANDS
647
Inflow Estimation
648
Hydraulic Considerations
649
Design Storm Detention
650
Detailed Dynamic Simulations
651
SUMMARY
653
Implementation of FWS Wetlands
655
Cultural Resources
656
Layout and Configuration
657
Fitting the Wetlands to the Site
665
182 HYDRAULICS
666
Hydraulics Profiles
667
DIKES BERMS AND LEVEES
668
Cut and Fill
669
Liners and Rooting Media
670
Erosion and Flood Protection
671
184 WATER CONTROL STRUCTURES
672
Outlets
675
Trash Racks
677
185 STORMWATER WETLANDS
678
Supplemental Water Source
679
Grading and Subgrade Preparation
680
Linear Placement
681
Piping and Structures
682
Treatment Potential
683
Plant Propagules and Sources
685
Planting Density
687
SUMMARY
689
Ancillary Benefits
691
Water Regime
692
Propagation
693
192 WILDLIFE
694
Macroinvertebrates
695
Fish
696
Amphibians and Reptiles
697
Mammals
699
193 DESIGN AND WILDLIFE USE
702
Design to Discourage Incompatible Wildlife
703
194 HUMAN USE
704
Passive Activities
705
195 DESIGN FOR ANCILLARY BENEFITS
706
Cell Size and Configuration
707
Pretreatment
708
SUMMARY
713
Sizing of SSF Wetlands
715
Scaling Factors for HSSF Wetlands
717
Empirical Equations
718
Water Budget Effects
719
Pollutant Mass Balances
720
Interconnected Pollutants
721
203 ACCOMPLISHING PERFORMANCEBASED SIZING FOR HSSF WETLANDS
722
Conservation in Design
723
Consideration of Concentration Reduction Only No Change in Flow
724
Seasonal and Stochastic Variability
726
CrossChecks against Existing Performance Data
727
Biogeochemical Cycle Constraints
728
204 VF WETLANDS INTERMITTENTLY LOADED BEDS
729
Sizing
730
Number of Beds
733
206 BIOSOLIDS WETLANDS FOR SLUDGE DEWATERING
734
Implementation of SSF Wetlands
735
Slopes
736
Floodplans
737
212 LAYOUT AND CONFIGURATION
738
Treatment Redundancy
739
Dividing Wetland Cells Based on Slope
740
Staged Treatment
741
Clogging in HSSF Wetland Beds
742
Clogging in VF Wetland Beds
744
LengthtoWidth Ratio
745
Wetland Cell Depth
746
Type and Size of Bed Media
747
SSF Wetland Cell Size
748
Hydraulics of VF and Biosolids Wetlands
753
Biosolids Wetlands
756
218 LINEAR SYSTEMS
757
Elevations and Grading
758
Berms
759
Vertical Sidewalls
760
Influent and Effluent Piping
762
Installation of Control Structures
763
2110 COMMISSIONING AND STARTUP
764
SUMMARY
766
Management Operations and Maintenance
767
Vegetation StartUp
769
222 MONITORING
770
Sampling and Analysis in Support of Mass Balances
771
Biological Monitoring
774
Depth Management
776
Water Depth Plants and Nutrient Loadings
777
Seasonal Depth Adjustments
778
Fish
779
Rodents
780
Insects
784
225 VEGETATION MANAGEMENT
786
Burning
787
226 MAINTENANCE OF STRUCTURES
788
SSF Wetlands
789
228 ASSISTANCE TO THE OPERATOR
791
SUMMARY
792
Economics
793
Direct Costs
794
Indirect Costs
805
Illustrations
806
Economy of Scale
807
232 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE COSTS
809
Free Water Surface Wetlands
810
233 PRESENT WORTH ANALYSES
811
Present Worth of Future OneTime Costs
812
Annualized Cost
814
SUMMARY
817
Modified and Combined Systems
819
Microbial Enhancement
820
Engineered Plants
821
242 CHEMICAL ADDITIONS
822
243 OPERATIONAL STRATEGIES
826
Recycle
828
FWS Timed Operational Sequences
829
SSF Timed Operational Sequences
830
244 INTEGRATED NATURAL SYSTEMS
831
Ponds and Wetlands
832
FWS and Infiltration
834
Overland Flow to FWS
838
SSF and Infiltration
839
VF and HSSF Combinations
840
Wetlands by Application Group
841
Poultry
842
Cattle
843
Swine
848
Zoos
849
252 FOODPROCESSING WASTEWATERS
852
Milk Products
853
Meat Processing
854
Beer Wine and Spirits
855
Vegetables
856
253 LANDFILL LEACHATE
857
Treatment Wetlands for Landfill Leachate
858
Design Considerations
859
Wetland Vegetation
860
Ammonia Removal
861
Iron
862
Trace Metals
863
ScaleUp
864
Pulp and Paper Wastewaters
865
Fertilizer Manufacture
866
SUMMARY
867
References
869
Lists of Basis Wetlands
945
Tracer Testing and FlowPattern Modeling
965
Index
1001
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 3 - Nature in giving natural birth to a desirable wetland. Constructed rice paddies have been responsible for feeding more people than any other enterprise on earth. 6.1 INTRODUCTION Natural wetlands are land areas that are wet during part or all of the year because of their location in the landscape. Historically, wetlands were called swamps, marshes, bogs, fens, or sloughs, depending on existing plant and water conditions and on geographic setting. Wetlands are frequently transitional between uplands...
Page 14 - Widespread use of constructed wetlands may provide a relatively simple and inexpensive solution for controlling many water pollution problems facing small communities, industries, and agricultural operations.
Page 11 - Emergent vegetation vascular, rooted plant species containing structural components that emerge above the water surface, including both herbaceous and woody plant species Natural wetlands have been used as convenient wastewater discharge sites for as long as sewage has been collected (at least 100 years in some locations). Examples of old treatment wetland sites can be found in Massachusetts, Wisconsin, Florida, and Ontario. Judging by the growing number of wetlands built for wastewater treatment...
Page 14 - Although some natural wetlands have been effectively used for water quality improvement, we do not wish to encourage additional use. We have recently become aware that natural wetlands are valuable resources that must not be wasted. Much remains to be learned about their many values and functions and the long-term consequences of wetland destruction.
Page 19 - However, the first information about the use of constructed wetlands with emergent vegetation appeared only in the early 1990s (Juwarkar et al., 1992). During the IWA conference in China in 1994, many papers on both horizontal and VF constructed wetlands from Asia, and especially China, were presented (Figure 1.21).
Page 12 - Constructed and Riverine Wetlands for Optimal Control of Wastewater at Catchment Scale...
Page 18 - Sometimes, the aim is to provide phosphorus polishing after chemical treatment and a buffer in case of treatment failure in the conventional treatment plant (Sunblad, 1998) (Figure 1.19).
Page 19 - Since 1980, research has been conducted in Brazil on the possibility of the use of water hyacinth ponds in combination with vertical upflow constructed wetlands planted with rice (Salati, 1987).
Page 19 - Tanner et al. (2000), constructed wetlands had been adopted enthusiastically by many New Zealand communities as a cost-effective means of secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment.
Page 17 - FWS wetland in 1967 (Veenstra, 1998). The wetland had a design depth of 0.4 m and the total area was 1 ha.

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