Nonimaging Optics in Solar Energy (Google eBook)

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Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2008 - Science - 119 pages
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Nonimaging optics is a subdiscipline of optics whose development over the last 35-40 years was led by scientists from the University of Chicago and other cooperating individuals and institutions. The approach provides a formalism that allows the design of optical devices that approach the maximum physically attainable geometric concentration for a given set of optical tolerances. This means that it has the potential to revolutionize the design of solar concentrators. In this monograph, the basic practical applications of the techniques of nonimaging optics to solar energy collection and concentration are developed and explained. The formalism for designing a wide variety of concentrator types, such as the compound parabolic concentrator and its many embodiments and variations, is presented. Both advantages and limitations of the approach are reviewed. Practical and economic aspects of concentrator design for both thermal and photovoltaic applications are discussed as well. The whole range of concentrator applications from simple low-concentration nontracking designs to ultrahigh-concentration multistage configurations is covered. Table of Contents: Introduction / CPCs / Practical Design of CPC Thermal Collectors / Practical Design of CPC PV Concentrators / Two-Stage Nonimaging Concentrators for Solar Thermal Applications / Two-Stage Nonimaging Concentrators for Solar PV Applications / Selected Demonstrations of Nonimaging Concentrator Performance / The Importance of Economic Factors in Effective Solar Concentrator Design / Ultrahigh Concentration / Bibliography
  

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Contents

Introduction
1
12 ADVANTAGES FOR SOLAR ENERGY CONCENTRATION
2
14 THE ROLE OF CONCENTRATION IN SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION
4
CPCs
7
22 TRUNCATION OF CPCs
10
24 SOLUTIONS FOR NONFLAT ABSORBERS
11
25 THE GAPLOSS PROBLEM
14
26 CPC SOLAR GEOMETRY
17
55 SUMMARY OF ADVANTAGES OF TWOSTAGE NONIMAGING CONFIGURATIONS
57
56 COMPARISON OF VARIOUS NONIMAGING SECONDARY CONCENTRATOR DESIGNS
58
562 FLOWLINE OR TRUMPET CONCENTRATORS
59
563 TERCs
61
57 SOME GENERAL OBSERVATIONS
62
58 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND AN OPERATIONAL TEST
63
581 THE IMPORTANCE OF MAINTAINING THE OPTICAL PERFORMANCE OF THE PRIMARY
64
TWOSTAGE NONIMAGING CONCENTRATORS FOR SOLAR PV APPLICATIONS
67

27 CPC DEPLOYMENT FLEXIBILITY
18
28 THE DIELECTRIC TOTALLY INTERNALLY REFLECTING CPC
19
29 SUMMARY OF CPC FEATURES
20
PRACTICAL DESIGN OF CPC THERMAL COLLECTORS
23
3111 GENERIC MODEL FOR NONIMAGING EVACUATED SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTORS
24
SIMPLE MODEL FOR XCPX OPTICAL PERFORMANCE
25
CONCENTRATION AND THERMAL PERFORMANCE FOR EVACUATED CPCs
26
312 COMPARISON OF EARLY RECENT XCPC EMBODIMENTS
27
313 THE INTEGRATED CPC
31
3131 A MANUFACTURABLE DESIGN
33
32 CPCs WITH NONEVACUATED ABSORBERS
35
321 PERFROMANCE MODEL FOR NONEVACUATED CPCs
36
PRACTICAL DESIGN OF CPC PV CONCENTRATORS
39
42 PERFORMANCE EFFECTS IN CPCs FOR PV APPLICATIONS
40
TWOSTAGE NONIMAGING CONCENTRATORS FOR SOLAR THERMAL APPLICATION
47
52 GEOMETRIC CONSIDERATIONS
48
53 CONCENTRATION OPTICAL QUALITY AND THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF TWOSTAGE DISH CONCENTRATORS
51
531 EFFECT OF SLOPE ERROR AND OPERATION TEMPERATURE
53
532 EFFECT OF FOCAL RATIO
54
533 OFFTRACK TOLERANCES WITH AND WITHOUT SECONDARIES
55
54 PERFORMANCE BENEFITS FOR SECONDARIES COMBINED WITH SPHERICAL MIRRORS
56
611 GEOMETRIC CONSIDERATIONS
68
612 SECONDARY DESIGNS
71
62 SINGLE LARGESCALE PV CONCENTRATORS USED WITH A MULTICELL ARRAY
73
SELECTED DEMONSTRATIONS OF NONIMAGING CONCENTRATOR PERFORMANCE
77
72 THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO EVACUATED XCPC ARRAY
78
73 THE SACRAMENTO ICPC SOLAR COOLING PROJECT
84
THE IMPORTANCE OF ECONOMIC FACTORS IN EFFECTIVE SOLAR CONCENTRATOR DESIGN
89
811 THE MODEL
90
812 CONCLUSIONS
93
82 THE ECONOMICS OF SOLAR COOLING SYSTEMS
94
823 DISCUSSION
96
ULTRAHIGH CONCENTRATIONS
99
9121 SURROUNDED FIELD GEOMETRY
101
9123 NONSURROUND FIELD DESIGN
102
9124 OBLIQUITY COSINE EFFECTS
105
914 RECOMMENDATIONS
106
921 USING HIGHLY CONCENTRATED SUNLIGHT SPACE
107
922 APPLICATION IN THE LUNAR ENVIRONMENT
108
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES
111
AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY
119
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