Black Athena: The archaeological and documentary evidence

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Martin Bernal
Rutgers University Press, 1987 - History - 736 pages
11 Reviews

This volume is the second in a projected four-part series concerned with the competition between two historical models for the origins of Greek civilization. The model current today is the Aryan Model, according to which Greek culture arose as the result of the conquest from the north by Indo-European speakers or "Aryans" of the native "pre-Hellenes." The Ancient Model, which was the model maintained in Classical Greece, held that the native population of Greece had initially been civilized by Egyptian and Phoenician colonists and that more Near Eastern culture had been introduced to Greece by Greeks studying in Egypt and Southwest Asia. In these and later volumes, Martin Bernal proposes a Revised Ancient Model. According to this, the Indo-European aspects of Greek language and culture should be recognized as fundamental and the considerable non-Indo-European elements should be seen largely as Egyptian and Levantine additions to this basis.

    

Volume II is concerned with the archaeological and documentary evidence for contacts between Egypt and the Levant on the one hand and the Aegean on the other, during the Bronze Age from c. 3400 B.C. to c. 1100 B.C. These approaches are supplemented by information from later Greek myths, legends, religious cults, and language. The author concludes that contact between the two regions was far more extensive and influential than is generally believed. In the introduction to this volume, Bernal also responds to some reviews and criticisms of Volume I of Black Athena.

 

Martin Bernal is Professor of Government at Cornell University.


  

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Review: Black Athena: Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, Volume I: The Fabrication of Ancient Greece, 1785-1985

User Review  - sologdin - Goodreads

introductory volume to multi-volume study, improperly maligned by critics as the full statement of author's case. lays out the basic principles of the argument: that there is ancient evidence for the ... Read full review

Review: Black Athena: Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, Volume I: The Fabrication of Ancient Greece, 1785-1985

User Review  - Steven Salaita - Goodreads

A fascinating book that opened up tons of debate in its day. I'm less interested in the technical details of Bernal's argument (although they of course are important) and more drawn to the questions ... Read full review

Contents

INTRODUCTION
1
Some theoretical considerations
11
CRETE BEFORE THE PALACES 70002100 BC
63
Cretan religion in the Early Bronze Age
74
EGYPTS INFLUENCE ON BOIOTIA AND
78
Neit the controller of water
87
Neit Athena and Nephthys Erinys
99
Herakles
106
The Hyksos capital at Tell el Dabaa
330
Who were the Hyksos?
336
The Hyksos as a multinational corporation
345
Hyksos material culture
352
Conclusion
358
CRETE THERA AND THE BIRTH OF MYCENAEAN
361
Was there a Hyksos invasion of Crete c 1730 BC?
377
The Aryanist Model of invasion
397

Conclusion
120
The tomb of Amphion and Zethos
128
Granaries
135
Social and political structures in Early Helladic Greece
144
The end of Early Bronze Age high civilization
150
Lead and spirals
157
Cultic symbols in Early Palatial Crete
164
Min and Minos
171
The case against Egyptian influence
177
The survival of the bull cult Cretan conservatism
184
Senwosre and Sesostris
194
The real and the fantastic in the Sesostris stories
200
Middle Kingdom Egypts military capability
204
Was Sesostris the destroyer?
223
SESOSTRIS II
236
Mesopotamia and Iran
257
The eruption redated
285
The implications of the redating
288
Membliaros and the pall of darkness
294
The Hekla eruption in Iceland
305
The worldwide impact of the Thera eruption
317
chaos in Egypt
323
Egyptian place names referring to the Aegean
410
Documentary evidence for Egyptian relations with
423
Contacts between Egypt and the Aegean in the late
434
Conclusion
444
Egyptian expansion from c 1520 to 1420
450
Pelops the crown prince?
456
Ugarit and Cyprus
462
the sailors
472
The foundation deposit plaques
477
The decline of Egyptian influence on the Aegean
489
THE HEROIC END TO THE HEROIC
495
Kadmos and the alphabet
501
The treasure of the Kadmeion
507
The date of the Trojan War
515
Conclusion
521
CONCLUSION
522
Notes
549
Glossary
635
Bibliography
649
Index
727
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About the author (1987)

Martin Bernal is Professor of Government and Near Eastern Studies at Cornell University. The first two volumes of Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization (???I: The Fabrication of Ancient Greece, 1785???1985???; and ???II: The Archaeological and Documentary Evidence???) have been translated into German, Italian, Spanish, French, and Swedish and will soon be available in Greek and Japanese. David Chioni Moore is Assistant Professor of International Studies and English at Macalester College.

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