Black Athena: The archaeological and documentary evidence
Rutgers University Press, 1987 - History - 736 pages
This volume is the second in a projected four-part series concerned with the competition between two historical models for the origins of Greek civilization. The model current today is the Aryan Model, according to which Greek culture arose as the result of the conquest from the north by Indo-European speakers or "Aryans" of the native "pre-Hellenes." The Ancient Model, which was the model maintained in Classical Greece, held that the native population of Greece had initially been civilized by Egyptian and Phoenician colonists and that more Near Eastern culture had been introduced to Greece by Greeks studying in Egypt and Southwest Asia. In these and later volumes, Martin Bernal proposes a Revised Ancient Model. According to this, the Indo-European aspects of Greek language and culture should be recognized as fundamental and the considerable non-Indo-European elements should be seen largely as Egyptian and Levantine additions to this basis.
Volume II is concerned with the archaeological and documentary evidence for contacts between Egypt and the Levant on the one hand and the Aegean on the other, during the Bronze Age from c. 3400 B.C. to c. 1100 B.C. These approaches are supplemented by information from later Greek myths, legends, religious cults, and language. The author concludes that contact between the two regions was far more extensive and influential than is generally believed. In the introduction to this volume, Bernal also responds to some reviews and criticisms of Volume I of Black Athena.
Martin Bernal is Professor of Government at Cornell University.
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Review: Black Athena: Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, Volume I: The Fabrication of Ancient Greece, 1785-1985User Review - sologdin - Goodreads
introductory volume to multi-volume study, improperly maligned by critics as the full statement of author's case. lays out the basic principles of the argument: that there is ancient evidence for the ... Read full review
Review: Black Athena: Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization, Volume I: The Fabrication of Ancient Greece, 1785-1985User Review - Steven Salaita - Goodreads
A fascinating book that opened up tons of debate in its day. I'm less interested in the technical details of Bernal's argument (although they of course are important) and more drawn to the questions ... Read full review
Some theoretical considerations
CRETE BEFORE THE PALACES 70002100 BC
Cretan religion in the Early Bronze Age
EGYPTS INFLUENCE ON BOIOTIA AND
Neit the controller of water
Neit Athena and Nephthys Erinys
The Hyksos capital at Tell el Dabaa
Who were the Hyksos?
The Hyksos as a multinational corporation
Hyksos material culture
CRETE THERA AND THE BIRTH OF MYCENAEAN
Was there a Hyksos invasion of Crete c 1730 BC?
The Aryanist Model of invasion
The tomb of Amphion and Zethos
Social and political structures in Early Helladic Greece
The end of Early Bronze Age high civilization
Lead and spirals
Cultic symbols in Early Palatial Crete
Min and Minos
The case against Egyptian influence
The survival of the bull cult Cretan conservatism
Senwosre and Sesostris
The real and the fantastic in the Sesostris stories
Middle Kingdom Egypts military capability
Was Sesostris the destroyer?
Mesopotamia and Iran
The eruption redated
The implications of the redating
Membliaros and the pall of darkness
The Hekla eruption in Iceland
The worldwide impact of the Thera eruption
chaos in Egypt
Egyptian place names referring to the Aegean
Documentary evidence for Egyptian relations with
Contacts between Egypt and the Aegean in the late
Egyptian expansion from c 1520 to 1420
Pelops the crown prince?
Ugarit and Cyprus
The foundation deposit plaques
The decline of Egyptian influence on the Aegean
THE HEROIC END TO THE HEROIC
Kadmos and the alphabet
The treasure of the Kadmeion
The date of the Trojan War