Wind as a Geomorphic Agent in Cold Climates

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Cambridge University Press, Jun 17, 2004 - Science - 358 pages
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This book was first published in 2004. Wind erosion and deposition are important factors in cold climates because of the open space and scarce vegetation. Aeolian processes connected with sand drift in polar environments are similar to those in deserts but in cold environments, frost and snow also play an important role. The Arctic is characterised by strangely eroded rocks, wind-formed lakes, sand dunes and loess deposits that owe their formation to aeolian processes controlled by frost and snow cover. Wind as a Geomorphic Agent in Cold Climates presents a detailed description and explanation of these wind-generated polar landforms. It includes numerous illustrations that will assist the reader in identifying and interpreting these features; both modern-day and those preserved in the geological record. This book provides an important introduction to this area of geocryology and will form a useful reference for graduate students and researchers in a variety of fields, including geomorphology, geology and environmental science.
  

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Contents

Introduction
1
Delimitation and characterization of cold environments
8
21 Climate
9
211 Temperatures in the Arctic
13
212 Climate of Antarctica
16
213 Precipitation
20
214 Humidity
23
215 Mountain climate
25
611 Cessation of deflation
173
612 Pavements
174
614 Ground water table and deflation lakes
177
The question of oriented lakes
182
72 Formation processes of oriented lakes
185
73 Origin of oriented lakes
187
74 The possible role of snow in the formation of oriented lakes
192
75 Wind is the key factor
194

22 Seasons
26
23 Seasonal snow cover
27
24 Glaciers
28
25 Soils
32
26 Permafrost
33
27 Seasonal frost
36
282 Arctic vegetation
42
283 Tundra
44
284 Cold desens
47
29 Some relevant ecological factors 291 Snow ecology
49
292 Surface temperatures
51
293 Wind accumulating nutrients
54
General wind patterns in cold regions
56
31 Arctic and Subarctic regions
57
311 Russian and Siberian Arctic
62
312 Nonh America
64
32 Antarctica
65
33 Local winds
69
331 Fiilnt winds
75
332 Katabatic winds
77
34 Winds and temperature
79
Wind drift of mineral material
80
42 Basic elements affecting sand drift
85
43 Aeolian sand
106
44 Aeolian dust and loess
115
45 Salt drift and weathering
117
Abrasion
119
52 Rock varnish
136
53 Frosted quartz grains
137
54 Abrasion of peat layers
139
55 Practical meaning of abrasion
140
Deflation
142
62 Activation of deflation
146
63 Blowouts in the Subarctic
148
64 Deflation in Iceland
151
65 Wind channels in New Zealand
154
67 Deflated sand and silt surfaces
155
68 Frost action and deflation
158
69 Seasonal variation of deflation
160
610 Sand transport and deflation measurements
162
Accumulation
195
82 Aeolian accumulation among vegetation
196
83 Sand dunes
197
84 Dune migration
210
85 Loess formation and dust storms in Polar regions
212
86 Niveoaeolian material
217
Wind directions interpreted from field evidence
222
92 Deflation basins and furrows
226
Icewedge casts and sand wedges 101 Frost cracking
227
102 Icewedge casts
228
103 Sand wedges
229
104 Soil and sand wedges formed by seasonal frost
231
105 Sand wedges at Hietatievat
235
Snow II1 General distribution of snow cover Nonhern hemisphere
236
1112 Antarctica
238
1114 Snow cover and vegetation
240
Drift of snow
251
122 Transport
253
123 Conditions during the drift
255
124 Amount of snow drift
258
125 Practical implications of snow drift
260
Snow accumulation
262
132 Accumulation and redistribution of snow in the mountains
265
133 Orientation of cirques
268
134 Snow drift and glacier mass balance
273
135 Asymmetric valleys
275
136 Slushflows
276
Deflation of snow cover 141 Erosional features of snow
279
142 Deflation lakes on glaciers
282
Snow and frost formation
287
151 Effects on permafrost formation
291
152 Palsa experiment
292
Aeolian landforms indicating palaeowind conditions 161 Environmental conditions during the Pleistocene
295
162 Past wind directions
297
163 Pleistocene abrasion
298
164 Other evidence of past aeolian activities
300
165 How to make progress in pa I aeoenv iron mental studies
301
Bibliography
303
Index
343
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Page 329 - TL 1960. Multiple glaciation in the McMurdo Sound region, Antarctica; a progress report. Journal of Geology, 68: 498-514.

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