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THE BIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND
GENOTYPE AND ENVIRONMENT
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AABB additive genetic alleles analysis of variance assortative mating assume assumption average breeding value Chapter character chromosomes coefficient consider covariances cross decomposition defined degrees of freedom denote different loci dominance deviations environment environmental correlation epistasis equation estimated Expected mean squares Expected values females flowers function gametes gene frequencies genetic variance genotype frequencies haplotype Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium heritability heterosis heterozygotes homozygous identical by descent identical genes inbred lines inbreeding individuals interaction ith locus large number linear linkage disequilibrium linkage equilibrium litter males maternal mean and variance mean value normal distribution number of loci observed obtained offspring optimal outbred population pairs of identical parents phenotypic values phenotypic variance plants plots predicted pure lines random mating recombination fraction regression relatives residual error selection index sex-linked sibs single locus sire stability statistically independent sum of squares Suppose theory traits variances and covariances varieties write zero mean