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Historical background to scientific exploration
Geological and climatic history present climates
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abundant adapted African lakes algae alkaline animals anoxic aquatic Beadle bottom changes cichlid cichlid fishes climate Crustacea density depth discussed dry season ecological ecosystem endemic evaporation evidence fishery flooded flow fluctuations freshwater geological habitats Haplochromis hydrological important inflow inland waters invertebrates ions isolated Kariba Lake Albert Lake Chad Lake Edward Lake George Lake Kariba Lake Kivu Lake Malawi Lake Tanganyika Lake Turkana Lake Victoria larvae late Pleistocene layer mainly molluscs Niger Nile niloticus nutrients open water organic matter outflow oxygen papyrus period photosynthesis phytoplankton plankton plants present primary production rainfall recent region relatively Rift Valley river Sahara saline water Sarotherodon Sarotherodon niloticus sediments shore soudanian south basin speciation species of fish stirring stratification submerged surface swamps temperature Tilapia tion tropical Africa tropical lakes Uganda upper vegetation volcanic water level winds Zaire Zaire basin Zambezi zooplankton