Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

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Oxford University Press, Apr 10, 2003 - Medical - 794 pages
6 Reviews
Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is the first comprehensive synthesis on development and evolution: it applies to all aspects of development, at all levels of organization and in all organisms, taking advantage of modern findings on behaviour, genetics, endocrinology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory and phylogenetics to show the connections between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary change. This book solves key problems that have impeded a definitive synthesis in the past. It uses new concepts and specific examples to show how to relate environmentally sensitive development to the genetic theory of adaptive evolution and to explain major patterns of change. In this book development includes not only embryology and the ontogeny of morphology, sometimes portrayed inadequately as governed by "regulatory genes", but also behavioural development and psychological adaptation, where plasticity is mediated by genetically complex mechanisms like hormones and learning. The book shows how the universal qualities of phenotypes - modular organization and plasticity - facilitate both integration and change. Here you will learn why it is wrong to describe organisms as genetically programmed; why environmental induction is likely to be more important in evolution than random mutation; and why it is crucial to consider both selection and developmental mechanism in explanations of adaptive evolution. This book satisfies the need for a truly general book on development, plasticity and evolution that applies to living organisms in all of their life stages and environments. Using an immense compendium of examples on many kinds of organisms, from viruses and bacteria to higher plants and animals, it shows how the phenotype is reorganized during evolution to produce novelties, and how alternative phenotypes occupy a pivotal role as a phase of evolution that fosters diversification and speeds change. The arguments of this book call for a new view of the major themes of evolutionary biology, as shown in chapters on gradualism, homology, environmental induction, speciation, radiation, macroevolution, punctuation, and the maintenance of sex. No other treatment of development and evolution since Darwin's offers such a comprehensive and critical discussion of the relevant issues. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is designed for biologists interested in the development and evolution of behaviour, life-history patterns, ecology, physiology, morphology and speciation. It will also appeal to evolutionary paleontologists, anthropologists, pscyhologists and teachers of general biology.
  

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Review: Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

User Review  - JP Drury - Goodreads

An unbelievable text. It took her around 15 years to write, so I shouldn't complain about how long it took me to read it. On the other end of this thing, my thinking about evolutionary processes is ... Read full review

Review: Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

User Review  - JP Drury - Goodreads

An unbelievable text. It took her around 15 years to write, so I shouldn't complain about how long it took me to read it. On the other end of this thing, my thinking about evolutionary processes is ... Read full review

Contents

Gaps and Inconsistencies in Modern Evolutionary Thought
3
Six Points of Confusion and Controversy
6
Development as a Conseryative Force versus Development as the Source of All Change
8
3 Proximate and Ultimate Causation
10
4 The Problem of Continuous versus Discrete Variation and Change
11
5 Problematic Metaphors
13
6 The GenotypePhenotype Problem
16
Toward a Solution
18
Combinatorial Evolution and DNA Sequence Conservation
325
Molecular Terminology and the Definitions of Evolution and the Gene
327
Speculations
329
Phenotypic Recombination Due to Learning
337
Learning in Relation to Selection and Evolution
338
The Genetic Accommodation of Learned Traits
339
Evolved Components ol Learning
341
Learned Components of Evolved Traits
342

Material for a Synthesis
21
Overview
28
Definitions of Key Terms
30
Plasticity
34
Hypervariahility and Somatic Selection
37
The TwoLegged Goat Effect in Development
51
The TwoLegged Goat Effect in Evolution
54
Modularity
56
Modularity as Plasticity
58
Hierarchy and Integration as Aspects of Modularity
60
Application of the Modularity Concept at Different Levels of Organization
61
Metamorphosis and Life Cycle Modularity
66
The Genetic Architecture of Modular Traits
67
Modular Traits as Subunits of Gene Expression
70
Connectedness
81
Modularity and Connectedness as Complementary Aspects of Biological Organization
83
Landmarks in the Evolution of Modularity
84
Hypermodularity and Somatic Sequestration
86
Development
89
Continuity of the Phenotype
90
The Dual Nature of Ail Regulation
98
GeneEnviionment Equivalence and Interchangeability
116
The Organization of Development by Switches
129
The Developmental Basis of Continuous and Discontinuous Variation
135
Consequences for Selection and Evolution
138
Adaptive Evolution
139
Prerequisites for Evolution by Natural Selection
142
The Origins of Novelty
143
Genetic Accommodation
147
Genes as Followers in Evolution
157
A Developmental Definition of Adaptive Evolution
158
Principles of Development and Evolution
159
Evolutionary Consequences of Plasticity
160
Evolutionary Consequences of Modularity
163
Integration or the Phenotype
174
Consequences of Regulatory Complexity
175
Does Plasticity Accelerate or Retard Evolution?
178
Does Behavior Take the Lead in Evolution?
180
Evolvability
182
Developmental Plasticity as a Solution to the Cohesiveness Problem
183
Darwins Theory of Development and Evolution
188
The Nature and Analysis of Phenotypic Transitions
197
Hybridization Polyploidy Horizontal Gene Transler and Phenotypic Fusion and Fission of Modular Traits
198
Developmental Recombination as a Complex Response to a Simple Input
200
Problems in Interpretation
202
In Praise of Anomalies
205
Duplication
209
Duplication and the Rule of Independent Selection
210
Gene Duplication
211
Duplication in the Origin of Novel Morphologies
212
Concerted Evolution and Diversification in Multigeneand Multiphenotype Families
214
Deletion
218
Deletion in the Evolution of the Arthropod Body Plan
219
Deletion in the Evolution of Behavior
222
Deletion of the Male Phenotype in Unisexual Flowers and Fishes
223
Disruptive Development Due to Disruptive Selection
224
What Happens to the Genes? Dispensable Phenotypes versus Dispensable Genes
230
Reversion
232
The Developmental and Genetic Basis of Atavisms and Reversions
237
Pleiotropy and Silent Genes
238
OneStep and Gradual Reversions
239
Heterochrony
241
Behavioral Heterochrony
244
Socially Induced Heterochrony in the Evolution of Termites
248
Heterochrony in Plants
250
Gradual versus OneStep Heterochrony
252
Heterotopy
255
Crosssexual Transfer
260
Darwins Theory of Crosssexual Transler
262
Alternative Explanations for Sexual Monomorphism
263
Crosssexual Transfer in Plants
265
Crosssexual Transfer in Animals
270
Female Hormones and Neurotransmitter Substances in Male Semen and Accessory Glands
277
Crosssexual Transfer of Parental Care
282
Crosssexual Transfer of Switch Mechanisms
291
The Social Environment as an Inducer of Crosssexual Transfer
293
Quantitative Shifts and Correlated Change
296
TwoLegged Goats and Developmental Constraints
297
The TwoLeggedGoat Effect in Domestic and Natural Populations
298
Tradeoffs
302
Quantum Shifts and Environmental Extremes
315
Combinatorial Evolution at the Molecular Level
317
Combinatorial Evolution in Regulatory Molecules
318
Combinatorial Evolution in the Genome
320
Phenotypic Recombination by RNA Splicing
323
Genetic Accommodation at the Molecular Level
324
Learning and Individual Differences in the Evolution of Specialization
344
Social Competition and Learning
349
The Importance of Forgetting
350
Recurrence
353
Historical Discussions of Recurrence
354
Problems in the Interpretation of Recurrent Similarity
357
Patterns of Recurrence
363
Environmentally Correlated Recurrence
368
Consequences of Recurrence for Systematics and Phylogenetics
369
The Evolutionary Significance of Recurrence
373
Alternative Phenotypes as a Phase of Evolution
377
Alternative Phenotypes as Models for Relating Development and Evolution
379
Phenomena Easily Confused with Alternative Phenotypes
380
Historical Misconceptions about Alternative Phenotypes
383
How Alternatives Facilitate Evolution
392
Divergence without Speciation
394
Specieslike Aspects of Alternatives
395
Evidence of Postorigin Divergence
400
Why Alternatives May Foster Divergence More Effectively Than Speciation
401
Phenotype Fixation and Developmental Character Release
404
Genetic Assimilation Revisited
415
Conclusions
416
Maintenance without Equilibrium
417
Matching Models to Modes of Regulation
418
Maintenance of Conditional Alternatives
429
Alternative Phenotypes and Maintenance of Genetic Polymorphism
434
Conclusions
439
Assessment
440
Assessment and Other Anthropomorphisms
442
Selected Examples
443
Learning and Assessment
462
How Complex Mechanisms of Assessment Originate and Evolve
464
The Evolution of Assessment Involving Choice
466
Gradualism
471
Modern Permutations of the Gradualism Controversy
473
What the Gradualism Controversy Is Not
474
Fishers Solution or Why the NeoDarwinian Resolution ol the Gradualism Controversy Was Unsatisfactory
476
Is Darwinian Gradualism Falsified by a Developmental Evolutionary Biology?
481
Conclusions
482
Homology
485
Cladistic and BroadSense Homology
486
The Criteria versus the Definition of Homology
488
Iterative or Paralogous Homology
490
Levels of Analysis and the Perception of Homology
494
Conclusions
497
Enviionmental Moditications
498
The Entrenchment of Environmentally Elements in Development
500
Possible Examples and Places to Look
503
Recurrent Extreme Environments and Phenotypic Innovation
505
Evidence for Environmental Initiation of Reorganizational Novelty
508
Environmental Influence and the Paleontological Time Scales of Evolutionary Change
518
Conclusions
524
Speciation
526
Theory
528
Kinds of Evidence
530
Examples
531
Speciation by Fixation of Parallel Alternative Phenotypes in the Two Sexes
538
Plasticity and Abrupt Sympatric Speciation
551
A Role for Developmental Plasticity?
554
Alternative Phenotypes and Speciation in Clines
560
Learning Sexual Selection and Speciation
562
Adaptive Radiation
564
Binary Radiations
566
Multidiiectional Radiations
573
Synergism of Plasticity and Other Factors in Adaptive Radiation
591
Grounds for Generalization
593
Predictions
596
Macroevolution
598
Intraspecific Macroevolution Compared with Previous Macroevolution Concepts
599
How Developmental Plasticity Facilitates Intraspecific Macroevolution
602
Major Transspecific Variants Found within a
603
Sexualty Selected Flexibility and Macroevolutionary Trends
608
Systema Naturae or Why All Phyla Are Old
609
Why Molecular Biology Cannot Solve the Macroevolution Problem
615
Punctuation
617
Previous Theories
619
Two Fossil Examples
620
Morphological Stasis Is Not Evolutionary Stasis
627
Conclusions
629
One Final Word Sex
630
Literature Cited
639
Author Index
745
Taxonomic Index
759
Subject Index
767
Copyright

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About the author (2003)

Mary Jane West-Eberhard is at Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.