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absolute absorbed action adiabatic air-vessel arrangement atmospheric pressure boiler bottom Boulton and Watt British thermal unit bucket burning calculated carbonic acid cent Centigrade chamber charge coal cold water compression condenser cooling Cornish crank Crossley cubic feet cubic metre cylinder density diameter difference efficiency engine evaporation expansion curve experiments explosion Fahrenheit fire flue fluid foot-lbs fuel furnace gas and air gas-engine gaseous gases give gun-cotton gunpowder heat of combustion heat-engine high-pressure hydrogen ignition indicator diagram Inst isothermal kilogram lecture maximum pressure means mechanical Messrs millimetres mixture motion obtained oxygen passing patent pipe piston plates plunger practical products of combustion projectile pump quantity of heat radiation raised refrigerating machine regenerator shows specific heat square inch steam steam-engine Stirling Stirling engine stroke substance supply surface surface condenser temperature theoretical thermo-dynamics tubes units of heat vacuum valve vapour velocity vessel volume Watt weight
Page 9 - The sensible energy in the shaking rope only differs from the energy of heat, ie, a bar of metal is the scale of the motion ; we see that in the chain but not in the bar, not because the molecules of the bar are moving slower, but because the scale of motion is infinitely smaller. The temperature of the bar from absolute zero measures the mean square of the velocity of all its parts, multiplied by some constant depending on the mass of the parts which are moving together ; so the mean square of the...
Page 67 - I intend in many cases to employ the expansive force of steam to press on the pistons, or whatever may be used instead of them, in the same manner as the pressure of the atmosphere is now employed in common fire engines: in cases where cold water cannot be had in plenty, the engines may be wrought by this force of steam only, by discharging the steam into the open air after it has done its office.
Page 230 - It only remains to me to thank you for the attention with which you have listened to a lecture which, from its technical nature, must necessarily be somewhat dry and uninteresting.
Page 131 - Since that is the case now, and since theory shows that it is possible to increase the efficiency of the actual gas engine two or even threefold, then the conclusion seems irresistible, that gas engines will ultimately supplant the steam engine. The steam engine has been improved nearly as far as possible, but the internal-combustion gas engine can undoubtedly be greatly improved, and must command a brilliant...
Page 1 - In lecturing on any subject, it seems to be a natural course to begin with a clear explanation of the nature, purpose, and scope of the subject. But in answer to the question — What is thermo-dynamics? I feel tempted to reply — It is a very difficult subject, nearly, if not quite, unfit for a lecture'.
Page 132 - ... shows that it is possible to increase the efficiency of the actual gas engine two or even threefold, then the conclusion seems irresistible, that gas engines will ultimately supplant the steam engine. The steam engine has been improved nearly as far as possible, but the internal-combustion gas engine can undoubtedly be greatly improved, and must command a brilliant future. I feel it a very great privilege to have been allowed to say this to you, and I say it with the strongest personal conviction.
Page 10 - ... for exactly the same reason as the heat in the bodies at the mean temperature of the earth's surface cannot be used to work heatengines. A chain attached to a ship's mast in a rough sea would become elastic with agitation, but this elasticity could not be used to raise cargo out of the hold, because it would be a constant quantity as long as the roughness of the sea lasted.
Page 136 - ... for the specific heat at this temperature and for the resulting quantum variation have therefore been used. The error in the excess specific heat of the alloys arising from the assumption that the quantum variation is the same as for pure nickel is estimated at 1%. (b) The Dilatation Correction. — The difference between the specific heats at constant pressure and at constant volume is given by...
Page 134 - A British thermal unit is the quantity of heat required to raise 1 Ib. of water 1° P. It is equal to 0-252 kg.-cal. A kg.-cal. or 'great calorie' is the quantity of heat required to raise 1 kg.