Silica, Some Silicates, Coal Dust and Para-Aramid Fibrils
World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Jan 1, 1997 - Medical - 506 pages
Evaluates the carcinogenic risks to humans posed by exposure to crystalline and amorphous silica, some silicates (palygorskite, sepiolite, wollastonite, and zeolites other than erionite), coal dust, and para-aramid fibrils. The volume opens with a discussion of the many complexities involved in assessing the cancer risks associated with occupational exposure to inhaled mineral dusts, and the special toxicological considerations required when evaluating the results of experimental studies. Against this background, the first and most extensive monograph evaluates human and animal carcinogenicity data on silica, concentrating on evidence of an increased risk for lung cancer. On the basis of this evaluation, crystalline silica inhaled in the form of quartz or cristobalite from occupational sources was classified as carcinogenic to humans. For amorphous silica, evidence from both epidemiological and experimental studies was judged inadequate, and amorphous silica could not be classified.
For palygorskite, the evaluation found sufficient evidence from studies in rats that long fibres were carcinogenic; studies of exposure to short fibres showed no significant increase in the incidence of tumours. The few studies in humans were judged inadequate. Long palygorskite fibres were classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. Short fibres could not be classified.
For coal dust, several limitations in human studies, largely concerned with excessive mortality from lung and stomach cancer, hindered interpretation of the epidemiological literature. The few adequate experimental studies showed no increase in tumours. Coal dust therefore could not be classified. para-Aramid fibrils likewise could not be classifed in view of inadequates in both the epidemiological and experimental data.
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Studies of Cancer in Humans
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alveolar macrophages amorphous silica animals asbestos attapulgite cancer risk carcinogenicity carcinomas case-control study chemical chrysotile clinoptilolite coal dust coal mine dust coal miners cohort contd cristobalite crocidolite crystalline silica cytotoxicity deaths deposition diameter diatomaceous earth disease dose dust exposure effects Environ etal Evaluation female fibres/mL fibrosis follow-up Group noted hamster human IARC IARC Monographs incidence increased industry inhalation injection intraperitoneal intrapleural intratracheal intratracheal instillation ISBN 92 lesions lung cancer lung tumours Luns macrophages male median mesothelioma mg/animal mg/m mice Min-U-Sil mineral dusts mL saline months mortality observed occupational exposure Occupational Safety odds ratio oxide palygorskite palygorskite attapulgite para-aramid para-aramid fibrils particles pneumoconiosis production pulmonary quartz reported respirable dust respirable quartz respiratory Rposure Safety and Health samples sepiolite silica dust silica exposure silicosis silicotics stomach cancer surface synthetic zeolite Table toxicity tridymite UICC chrysotile underground United vitro weeks Wistar rats wollastonite workers zeolite