The American Foreign Legion: Black soldiers of the 93d in World War I
Still segregated in World War I, the U.S. Army was reluctant to use its 93d division of black soldiers in combat and instead assigned the division's three National Guard and one draftee regiments to the French Army. The battlefield successes of these African Americans under the French at the height of the German offensives in 1918 turned white expectations of failure upside down. Their bravery and heroism gained the respect of French and German alike and called into question the U.S. Army's policy of racially segregating its divisions. The full story of their accomplishments is told here for the first time through the eyes of the enlisted men and their white and black officers. The book highlights the actions of individuals as well as the various units of the 93d in compelling combat scenes. We join Company C of the 370th Infantry under heavy fire as they capture artillery pieces, machine guns, and even a portion of a railroad track to win a unit citation and the Croix de Guerre. We learn about the extraordinary actions of Corporal Freddie Stowers, the only African American in the war to be nominated for-and seventy years later awarded-the Medal of Honor, and others who earned the Distinguished Service Cross and French awards for gallantry in combat. Their story of overcoming the odds at a time when most believed blacks performed poorly in combat is told by Frank Roberts, who has been researching the subject for years. While his book acknowledges the many problems encountered by the 93d, the focus is on the many triumphs of these tenacious soldiers as they fought the enemy and the prejudices of their fellow Americans. This book is published in cooperation with the Association of theUnited States Army.
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A Foreign Legion Is Born
The 93d Divisions First Regiment
The 15ths Trials at Spartanburg
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157th Infantry Division 15th New York 1st Battalion 325th Infantry Regiment 369th Infantry 371st Infantry 3d Battalion 93d Division Adrian helmet American Battle Monuments American Decorations American Negro Armies and Battlefields arrived artillery fire assault attack Battle Monuments Commission Battlefields in Europe Bellevue Signal Ridge billeting Braddan Camp Logan captured Colonel Colored command Corps Croix de Guerre Distinguished Service Cross division's dugouts enemy Fallen Leaves fighting forward French 157th Infantry French 161st Infantry French Army front lines German German artillery Gouraud's grenades guns Hand of France Harlem Hayward heavy Heywood Ibid Infantry's kilometers Lieutenant Little machine machine-gun machine-gun fire marched Mason and Furr ment Miles military Monthois National Guard Negro Combat Troops Negro Soldiers night officers patrol Pershing platoon positions raid Red Hand regi Rhine rifle Scott Scott's Official History sector September shell ship Stokes mortar Sweeney Tupes U.S. Army units Williams World wounded York Infantry