Horn and Crescent: Cultural Change and Traditional Islam on the East African Coast, 800-1900
In this first major historical study of Islam among the Swahili, Randall Pouwels shows how Islam and other aspects of coastal civilization have evolved since about AD 1000 as an organic whole. Coastal Africans, he argues, simply adopted Islam as the spiritual vehicle best suited to their expanding intellectual needs and to meeting the opportunities presented by their physical and cultural environment. The culture and religion that developed were strong, rich, supple, self-assured. yet capable of accommodating change where it was unavoidable or preferable. All these characteristics were put to the test in the nineteenth century, when coastal peoples were subjected to intense Arabizing and Westernizing influences. Pouwels demonstrates how local people went on asserting their own traditions while assimilating what they chose from both worlds. East African Muslims, therefore faced the twentieth century divided on issues of local cultural autonomy and the need to conform to external cultural pressures.
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The roots of a tradition 8001500
The emergence of a tradition 9001500
A northern metamorphosis 15001800
Town Islam and the umma ideal
Wealth piety justice and learning
The Zanzibar Sultanate 181288
New secularism and bureaucratic centralization
A. S. Farsy Abdallah Abdu'l-Aziz Abdu'r-Rahman Abu Bakr Ahmad Alawi Ali Mazrui April Arab Baadhi Bajun Bantu Barghash British Burton Busaidi calim centres Chapter Chittick civilization claims clans coastal culture coastal towns Comorians Comoro court culama3 cultivation descent groups dhikr East Africa East African coast El-Zein especially Euan-Smith European example Farsy Freeman-Grenville Hadhramawt Hadrami Hamid Hamud Hardinge Hidabu History Ibadi Ibid Imamate Interview island Jamal al-Layl Kenya Khalifa Kilwa Lamu archipelago learned liwalis London Maawi mainland Malindi Manda Mazrui Migrations Miji Kenda Mogadishu Mombasa mosque Muhammad Muslims Mwinyi Nabahani nineteenth century northern coast Oman Omanis oral traditions Oromo Pate Pemba Pokomo political Portuguese Qadiriyya qadis Quran religion religious ritual Sacred Meadows Salih Salim Salisbury Sayyid settled Shafii Shanga shaykh Shirazi Shungwaya shurafa3 siwa Siyu slaves social society Somali Stigand Sultan Sumayt Swahili tariqa townspeople trade Tribes walimu waungwana Wayumbili wazee wealth Weyoni Zanzibar Zinj