Field engineering: a handbook of the theory and practice of railway surveying, location and construction (Google eBook)

Front Cover
J. Wiley, 1919 - Transportation
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Contents

Axemen
12
Leveler
13
Rodmen
15
The tape io 35 The level r
16
The rods
17
Transit points
18
Obstacles to alinement and measurement
19
General problem
20
Lines at a large angle
22
CHAPTER III
26
Traction of a locomotive
27
Resistances to motion
28
Curve compensation
30
Formulas for maximum trains
31
Engincrstage
33
Graphical solution
34
Reduction of grades on curves
35
Example
36
Pusher grades
37
Undulating grades
38
Comparison of routes
39
CHAPTER IV
41
Long tangents 80 Levelers duties Profiling
42
CHAPTER V
44
Radius and degree of curve
45
Measurement of curves
46
BECT ON 95 Formula for radius in terms of T and A
51
Formula for external distance in terms of T and A
52
Formula for radius in terms of E and A
53
Formula for tangent distance in terms of E and A
54
B Location of Curves by Deflection Angles 101 Deflection angles
55
Rule for deflections
56
Second method of deflections
57
Correction for subchords
59
Field notes
60
Method by deflections only
61
Metric curves
62
Four methods
63
Do beginning with a subchord
64
Formula for subchord offsets approximate
65
By middle ordinates
66
By tangent offsets
67
Do beginning with a subchord
68
By ordinates from a long chord
69
Do for an even number of stations
70
Do for an odd number of stations
71
Do for an even number of half stations
72
Erecting perpendiculars without instrument
74
The point of curve inaccessible
75
The vertex and point of curve inaccessible
76
The point of tangent inaccessible
77
To find the change in R and E for a given change in T
78
SECTION PAGE 134 To find the change in T and E for a given change in R
80
To find a new point of curve for a parallel tangent
81
To find new P C and new radius for a parallel tangent
82
To find new tangent points for two parallel tangents
83
To find new R and P C for new tangent at same P T
85
To find new P C for a new tangent from same vertex
86
To find a curve to pass through a given point
87
To find new radius for a given radial offset
88
14G Equation of the valvoid
91
To find the length of arc of the valvoid
92
To find new position of any stake for a new radius from same P C
95
To find distance on any line between tangent and curve
97
To find a tangent to pass through a distant point
98
To find a line tangent to two curves
100
To find a line tangent two to curves reversed
102
Study of location on preliminary map Templets Table of convenient curves Paper location
104
CHAPTER VI
107
The locus of the point of compound curve
108
Selection of angles 22
109
B General Equations 161 Formulas for radii central angles and sides
110
Si S2 A and J2i to find Ai A2 and ?2
112
A the radii and one side to find the other
113
one ide radius and central angle to find the others
114
Special Problems in Compound Curves 3ECTION pAGE 169 To find a new P C C for a parallel tangent
116
To find a new P C C and last radius for a parallel tangent
118
To find a new P C C and last radius for the same tangent
121
To find a new P C C and last radius Rz for new direction of tangent through same P T
123
To find a new P C C and last radius Ri for new direction of tangent through same P T
126
To replace a simple curve by a threecentered compound curve between the same tangent points
128
To find the distance between the middle points of a simple curve and threecentered compound curve
130
To replace a simple curve by a threecentered compound curve passing through the same middle point
131
The curve sharpened at the tangents
133
To replace tangent by a curve compounded with the ad jacent curves
135
When the perpendicular offset p is assumed
136
When the angle a or 0 is assumed
137
When the radius Rz is assumed
138
Locus of the center Oa
139
To replace the middle arc of a threecentered compound by arc of different radius
140
CHAPTER VII
146
p n and Ar to find rz
147
Given I Ai and A2 to find n
148
Ai and A2 to find r curve beginning and ending at given points
149
Remarks on solution of curve problems
150
A n ra and the distance from P T to V to find Ai Aa and the distance from the P C to V
151
CHAPTER VIII
153
Turnout to a parallel side track
167
202203 Ladder and body tracks
169
Turnouts from curved tracks stub switch
170
Split switch turnouts from curved tracks
173
Crossover between parallel curved tracks
175
Crossing of straight and curved track
176
Crossing of two curved tracks
177
Turnout connecting two straight tracks which cross
178
Crossover between nonparallel straight tracks
179
Split switch crossing
181
Symmetrical Y tracks
182
Nonsymmetrical Y tracks
183
CHAPTER IX
185
Form and design of the spiral curve
186
Spiral deflections and coordinates
187
Adaptation of the spiral in practice
188
Spiral long chords and tangents
189
Tangent distance for curve with spirals
190
External distance for curve with spirals
191
Difference of R in terms of x
192
Approximate value of R 46
194
To compound a simple curve for spirals
195
To apply spirals to a simple curve A
196
b The spirals different
197
To apply spirals to a compound curve h
198
To apply spirals to a compound curve A+
199
To insert a spiral between arcs of a compound curve
202
Field uud office work
203
section paoe 232a Description of the tenchord spiral 204 j 2326 Notation 204
204
232c Fundamental equations 204a 232a Angles between successive chords and main tangent 20 r 232e Spiral deflections and coordinates 204
204
CHAPTER X
205
The datum how assumed 20 j 235 Benches how used B M 20 3
206
Elevation of intermediate points 20fi 239 Turning points T P 200
207
Profiles 20i
210
Errors due to refraction
211
Leveling by transit
212
To find the W by observation of the horizon
213
Stadia measurements horizontal sights
215
Stadia measurements inclined sights vertical rod
217
CHAPTER XI
219
Rod reading for grade
220
Crosssections formulas for
221
SECTION PAGE 257 Terminal sections
224
Cheek levels
225
CHAPTER XII
227
Formulas for sectional areas
228
Formulas for solid contents
232
Application of the prismoidal correction
235
Correction for curvature in earthwork
236
Isolated masses
240
Volume of truncated triangular prisms
242
Method by unit areas
243
Other methods
244
CHAPTER XIII
245
Tables of triangular prisms
246
Tables for irregular sections
247
Example
248
CHAPTER XIV
251
Triangular prisma
252
Triangular prisms use of the diagram
253
Use of threelevel section diagram
256
Use of prismoidal correction diagram
257
Conclusion
258
Haul and the Mass Diaoram section face 289 Haul
259
Quantity profile
261
Profitable haul
265
Example
266
CHAPTER XVI
267
Test levels and guard plugs
268
Alteration of line
270
Arch culverts
272
Cattleguards
277
Location Alinement Shafts Curves Levels Grades Sections Rate of Progress Ventilation Drain age
279
Retracing the line 285
285
Side ditches and drains
286
Monthly estimates
287
CHAPTER XVII
289
To find the middle ordinate mi for rails in terms of rail and R
290
Testing track curvature
292
Grade stakes
293
Example
294
Second method for vertical curves
295
Third method for vertical curves
296
Length of vertical curves
297
SECTION PAGE 324 To find a chord whose middle ordinate equals the proper elevation
298
General remarks on elevation of rail
299
CHAPTER XVIII
301
Natural features Contours Hatchings
302
CHAPTER XIX
304
The dumpy level
307
Rocky shores Tielines 23
23
System of plotting map 24
24
Central angle and length of curve 47
47
Definition of other elements 48
48
Formula for tangent distance T 49
49
Copyright

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 265 - The limits of free haul shall be determined by fixing on the profile two points one on each side of the neutral grade point one in excavation and the other in embankment, such that the distance between them shall equal the specified free-haul limit and the included quantities of excavation and embankment balance.
Page 332 - All numbers which consist of the same figures standing in the same order have the same mantissa, regardless of the position of the decimal point in the number, or of the number of ciphers which precede or follow the significant figures of the number. The value of the characteristic depends entirely on the position of the decimal point in the number. It is always one less than the number of figures in the number to the left of the decimal point. The value is therefore diminished by one every time...
Page 335 - Take out from the proper column of the table the logarithm corresponding to the given number of degrees and minutes. If there be any seconds multiply them by the adjoining tabular difference, and apply their product as a correction to the logarithm already taken out. The correction is to be added if the logarithms of the table are increasing with the angle, or subtracted if they are decreasing as the angle increases. In the first quadrant the log sines and tangents increase, and the log cosines and...
Page 333 - The first three figures of a number are given in the first column, the fourth at the top of the other columns. The first two figures of the mantissa are given only in the second column, but these are understood to apply to the remaining four figures in either column following, which are comprised between the same horizontal lines with the two. If a number (after cutting off the ciphers at either end) consists of not more than four figures, the mantissa may be taken direct from the table ; but by...
Page 334 - Table XXIV is a small table of logarithms of numbers from 1 to 100, with the characteristic prefixed, for easy reference when the given number does not exceed two digits. But the same mantissas may be found in the larger table. TABLE XXV.
Page 337 - ... lies between 88 and 92, or between 178 and 180; but if the number of degrees be found at the bottom of the page, the title of each column will be found there also; and if the number of degrees be found on the...
Page 265 - All material within this limit of free haul shall be eliminated from further consideration. The distance between the center of gravity of the remaining mass of excavation and center of gravity of the resulting embankment, less the limit of free haul as above described, shall be the length of overhaul. The compensation to be rendered therefor shall be determined by multiplying the yardage in the remaining mass, as above described, by the length of the overhaul.
Page 212 - When a transit bas a level-tube attached to the telescope, it may bu used as a Theodolite for levelling, and for taking vertical angles. If the instrument be in perfect adjustment, the line of sight will be horizontal when the bubble stands at the middle point of the tube, and the reading of the vertical circle will be zero. Should there be a small reading when the line of sight is horizontal it is called the index error. When the line of sight is not horizontal, the angle which it makes with the...
Page 332 - ... of the calculation. By this rule we have Number Logarithm 1.384 0.141136 .1384 9.141136 .01384 8.141136 .001384 7.141136 etc. etc. No confusion need arise from this method in finding a number from its logarithm; for although the logarithm 6.141136 represents either...

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