Plato's Ethics

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Oxford University Press, Dec 13, 1994 - Philosophy - 464 pages
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Contents

Plato Socrates and the Dialogues
3
Approaches to the Dialogues
4
Aristotle and the Dialogues
5
Why Dialogues?
7
Aristotle and Socrates
8
The Order of the Dialogues
11
Platos Attitude to Socrates
13
Socrates in the History of Greek Ethics
15
Psychic Order
178
The Human Function
179
Results of Book I
180
Objections to Justice
181
Justice and Its Consequences
182
GygesRing
184
The Choice of Lives
185
Apparent and Real Justice
187

Socrates Method
17
Uses of the Elenchos
18
Socrates Constructive Method
20
The Demand for an Account
21
Accounts and Definitions
22
Adequate Definitions
23
Types of Definition
25
Knowledge and Definition
27
Difficulties about Socratic Ignorance
28
Difficulties in Socratic Method
29
Socrates Arguments about the Virtues
31
Common Beliefs
32
Virtue
33
Virtue and the Virtues
35
Action Character and Virtue
36
The Fine and the Good
37
Temperance and Knowledge
38
Bravery and Knowledge
40
Temperance and the Unity of the Virtues
41
Bravery and the Unity of the Virtues
42
Justice and the Good of the Agent
44
Justice and the Good of Others
46
The Guiding Principles of Socratic Inquiry
48
The Elenchos and the Search for Definitions
49
Socrates Treatment of Common Beliefs
50
From Happiness to Virtue
52
Why Eudaemonism?
53
Happiness Wisdom and Fortune
55
Wisdom and the Correct Use of Assets
56
The Sufficiency of Virtue for Happiness
58
Use and Misuse of Knowledge
60
Socrates Defence of His Guiding Principles
61
Questions about Socrates Defence
63
Difficulties for Socrates
65
Is Virtue Instrumental to Happiness?
67
Is Virtue a Craft?
68
Aristotle on Virtue and Craft
70
Aristotle on Production and Action
71
Virtues Crafts and Instrumental Means
72
Why Is Virtue Sufficient for Happiness?
73
Virtue Craft and NonRational Desires
75
Implications of an Instrumental View
76
The Protagoras
78
Protagoras and Socrates on Virtue
79
Preliminary Arguments for the Unity of the Virtues
80
The Appeal to Hedonism
81
The Denial of Incontinence
83
The Last Argument for the Unity of the Virtues
84
Questions about Socratic Hedonism
85
Eudaemonism and Hedonism
87
Advantages of Hedonism
88
Hedonism and Instrumentalism
89
Hedonism and the Virtues
90
Socratic Method in the Protagoras
92
The Argument of the Gorgias
95
Objections to Rhetoric
96
Rhetoric and Justice
97
Power and Justice
99
The Argument with Callicles
101
CalliclesMoral Position
102
Callicles Conception of Happiness
104
Socrates Conception of Happiness
106
Rhetoric and Pleasure
108
Happiness and Rational Order
109
Implications of the Gorgias
111
Pleasure and Good
113
Psychic Order
114
Socratic Eudaemonism in the Gorgias
116
The Adaptive Conception of Happiness
117
Wisdom and Happiness
118
Happiness Virtue and Justice
120
The Treatment of the Interlocutor
121
The Constructive Use of the Elenchos
122
The Contribution of the Gorgias to Socratic Moral Theory
124
The Meno
127
Inquiry and Knowledge
128
Accounts and Definitions
129
Definition Explanation and Knowledge
130
A Successful Inquiry
132
A Defence of Socratic Inquiry
133
Aspects of Recollection
135
For and Against
136
Virtue and Benefit
137
Psychological Eudaemonism in the Meno
138
Knowledge and Teaching
140
Knowledge Belief and Socratic Inquiry
141
Knowledge Belief and Stability
143
Knowledge Belief and Virtue
145
The Meno and Socratic Ethics
146
The Theory of Forms
148
Definition and Unity
149
Convention and Objectivity
150
Epistemological Requirements for a Definition
152
Compresence of Opposites
154
Compresence and Explanation
155
The Form and the Many
156
The Role of the Senses
157
Sensible Properties
160
Types of Flux
161
The Senses and the Compresence of Opposites
163
Definitions and Hypotheses
166
Republic I
169
Cephalus
170
Polemarchus
171
Simonides on Justice
172
Thrasymachus Account
174
Rulers and Crafts
176
Thrasymachus on Justice and Virtue
177
Glaucon Adeimantus and Thrasymachus
188
The Division of Goods
189
The Superiority of Justice
191
The Relation of Justice to Happiness
192
Virtue and Reliability
194
Admiration for Virtue
195
Virtue Knowledge and Perfection
197
Socrates and the Praise of Justice
198
Socrates and the Relation of Virtue to Happiness
199
Socrates and the Definition of Justice
200
Are Platos Questions Reasonable?
201
The Division of the Soul
203
Conflicts between Desires
205
Rational Desires versus Appetites
206
Desire and Contrariety
207
The Appetitive Part
209
The Spirited Part
211
The Rational Part
214
Reasons for the Tripartition of the Soul
216
Parts of the Soul as Agents
217
The Unity of a Part of the Soul
218
Relations between Parts of the Soul
220
The Virtues
223
Bravery
224
Temperance
226
Justice and the Other Virtues
227
Is Knowledge Necessary for Virtue? The Political Analogy
229
Virtue without Wisdom?
230
Knowledge and Stability
231
Knowledge Reasons and Virtue
233
Degrees of Virtue
234
Virtue Knowledge and Autonomy
235
Is Knowledge Sufficient for Virtue?
236
The Reciprocity and Unity of the Virtues
237
The Republic and the Socratic Dialogues
239
Socratic and Platonic Doctrines in Greek Ethics
242
Justice and Happiness
244
The Function of the Rational Part
245
The Role of Practical Reason
247
Some Objections
248
Some Ambiguities
250
Happiness and the Human Function
252
Justice and the Human Function
253
The Dominance of Justice
254
An Objection to Platos Account of Justice
256
Common Views about Justice
257
An Answer to Thrasymachus?
260
Republic VVII
262
The Philosophers and the SightLovers
264
The Importance of the SightLovers
265
Knowledge and Belief
266
Platos Objection to the SightLovers
268
Are the SightLovers Refuted?
269
The Sun
271
The Form of the Good
272
The Divided Line
274
The Cave on Belief
275
The Cave on Knowledge
277
Epistemology and Moral Theory
279
Republic VIIIIX on Justice
281
Sources of Psychic Injustice
282
The Decline of the Soul
283
Choices in Unjust Souls
284
Rational Choices in the Decline of the Soul
285
The Rational Part of an Unjust Soul
287
The Functions of the Rational Part
288
The Rational Part and the Choice of Ends
290
The Pleasures of the Rational Part
291
The Special Concerns of the Rational Part
292
The Good of the Whole Soul
294
A Fuller Conception of Psychic Justice
295
Platonic Love
298
Philosophers as Rulers
299
The Aims of the Rational Part
301
The Puzzles about Love in the Republic
302
Aspects of Eros
303
Concern for the Future
306
Concern for Others
308
Propagation and Love of Other Persons
310
Platonic Love and Platonic Justice
311
The Justice of the PhilosopherRulers
313
Conclusions from the Republic
316
Pleasure Intelligence and the Good
318
The Diversity of Pleasures
319
One and Many
321
Limit and Unlimited
323
Limit and Norm
324
Questions about Limit and Unlimited
325
The Choice of Pleasures
327
False Pleasures
328
Better and Worse Pleasures
330
The Character of the Good
332
Completeness and External Goods
335
The Special Role of Intelligence
337
Reason and Virtue
339
Pleasure and Desire
342
Pleasure and Happiness
343
Virtue and Happiness
345
The Cardinal Virtues
347
Wisdom and Virtue
349
Conditions for Wisdom
350
Notes
355
References
393
Index Locorum
407
Index Nominum
419
General Index
423
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