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stone facing page
i1 Physical characteristics of flowing water
22 other sections not shown
abundant adults Africa algae amount amphipods animals aquatic areas Baetis benthic benthos biomass breeding brown trout caddis-worms calcium carbon cent channel Chironomidae cm./sec Creek current speed cycles cyprinids darters detritus diatoms Diptera discharge downstream drift ecological effect eggs emergence Ephemeroptera Europe factor fairly fauna feed fish flow freshwater Gammarus genera genus Gessner gravel growth habitat hatch Hydropsyche Hynes important increase insects invertebrates lakes large numbers larvae less live mayflies Minckley move normal North America number of species numbers nymphs observed occur Oligochaeta organic matter oxygen particles period periphyton plankton plants Plecoptera population presumably probably production pupae Rhithrogena rhithron riffles rivers and streams rotifers running water running-water salmon samples sand season seems seen Shadin shown silt similar Similarly Simuliidae Simulium small streams snails spates specimens spring stoneflies stones stony stream bed stream-dwelling substrata substratum summer surface temperature tend Trichoptera trout types upstream varies winter zone