State of the World's Oceans (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Michelle Allsopp, Paul Johnston, David Santillo
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 16, 2008 - Nature - 270 pages
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This book provides a contemporary overview of the world’s oceans. It identifies and describes the various problems which continue to threaten environmental quality and biodiversity, ranging from overfishing to the complex changes which could take place as a result of global climate change. Written by scientists working at the Greenpeace Research Laboratories at the University of Exeter in the UK, it is based upon the latest published scientific information. It draws upon the considerable and unique experience of Greenpeace as an organisation working on a diverse array of marine conservation issues at the international scale. The book is designed to serve a wide readership, both as a source of reliable information and as an introduction to the wide literature which exists on marine conservation issues. It is designed to be accessible by those pursuing academic studies as well as those with a more general interest in the factors which are shaping our oceans. As well as identifying the many problems, the book also outlines the ways in which the foundations and building blocks for clean, healthy and biodiverse seas can be provided, especially through the development of a global network of marine reserves.
  

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Contents

Biodiversity
1
11 Introduction to Biodiversity
2
12 The Deep Oceans
3
121 Seamounts
4
122 Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vents
7
123 Bioprospecting in the Deep Sea
9
13 Biodiversity Hotspots at Sea in the Pelagic Open Water Zone
11
14 Coral Reefs
12
42 Radioactive Pollution
138
43 Nutrient Pollution and Marine Dead Zones
141
44 Oil Pollution
144
441 Effects of Oil Spills
145
443 Prestige Oil Spill Spain 2002
147
444 Solutions
148
45 Plastic Debris
149
451 Sources of Marine Debris
150

142 Protection of Neighbouring Environments
16
144 Threats to Coral Reefs
18
145 Reducing Threats and Conserving Coral Reefs
21
15 Mangroves
24
151 Biodiversity of Mangroves
25
152 Protection of Neigbouring Environments
26
154 Threats to Mangroves
27
155 Reducing Threats and Conserving Mangroves
28
161 Biodiversity of Seagrasses
29
162 Protection of Neighbouring Environments
30
164 Reducing Threats and Conserving Seagrasses
31
Fisheries
33
21 Introduction
34
221 Summary of FAO Figures for Marine Capture Fisheries
35
23 Fishery Collapses and Declines of Marine Fish
37
232 Declines in Predatory Fish
39
233 Declines in Other Species
43
235 Fishing Down the Marine Food Web
44
236 Impacts on Ecosystems of Overfishing and Fishing Down the Food Web
45
242 The International Whaling Commission
46
Threats to Cetaceans from Whaling
47
244 Threats to Cetaceans from Fisheries
51
245 Protecting Cetaceans
53
252 Beam Trawling on the Western European Continental Shelf
59
253 Industrial Fishing
61
26 Bycatch of Seabirds Marine Mammals and Turtles
64
262 Marine Mammals
71
263 Marine Turtles
77
27 Towards Sustainable Fisheries
82
Aquaculture
84
31 Introduction
86
32 Negative Impacts of Aquaculture on People and on the Environment
89
Salmon Farming
96
33 Use of Fishmeal Fish Oil and Low Value or Trash Fish in Aquaculture Feeds and Associated Problems
104
A Net Loss of Protein
105
333 Food Security Issues
106
341 Utilisation of PlantBased Products
107
342 Utilisation of Fish Trimmings
109
35 Moving Towards More Sustainable Aquaculture Systems
110
351 Examples of IMTA Systems
111
36 Recommendations
112
Pollution
115
41 Chemical Pollution
116
411 Brominated Flame Retardants
117
412 Perfluorinated Compounds PFCs
128
413 The Beginning of the End for Chemical Pollution?
137
452 Harm to Marine Wildlife
151
453 Potential Invasion of Alien Species
154
455 Solutions
155
Increasing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Impacts on the Marine Environment
156
51 Introduction
158
52 Sea Surface Temperature Increase
159
522 Coral Bleaching
160
53 SeaLevel Rise
164
531 Impacts of SeaLevel Rise on Society and Wildlife
165
54 Climate Change and Fishing
167
56 Climate Change and the Arctic
169
561 Fish
171
564 Polar Bears
172
57 Climate Change and the Antarctic
174
572 Effects of Declining Krill Abundance on Other Animals
176
58 Ocean Acidification and Its Impacts on Marine Organisms
177
59 The Way Forward
180
Equity
181
61 Illegal Unreported and Unregulated Fishing Pirate Fishing
182
612 Pirate Fishing Rampant in West Africa
184
613 Pirates Plundering the Pacific
186
615 Solutions
187
Wiping Out Tuna in the Mediterranean Sea
188
622 Ranching and Pirate Fishing
189
623 Greenpeace Recommendations
191
624 An Unsustainable Future?
192
64 Unfair Fisheries
194
66 Towards Sustainable Fisheries
196
661 Greenpeace Action in the UK
197
662 Greenpeace Action in the Baltic
198
Marine Reserves
199
71 Introduction
200
72 Marine Reserves Defined
201
73 Benefits of Marine Reserves
203
731 Benefits to Fisheries
204
732 Other Benefits of Marine Reserves
205
742 Size of Marine Reserves
206
743 Site Selection
208
744 Networking and Connectivity of Marine Reserves
211
747 Use of a Computer Program for Designing Networks
212
Conclusion
215
Appendix
217
References
225
Index
254
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