The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 2

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J. D. Fage, Roland Anthony Oliver
Cambridge University Press, 1978 - History - 858 pages
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After the prehistory of Volume I, Volume II of The Cambridge History of Africa deals with the beginnings of history. It is about 500 B.C. that historical sources begin to embrace all Africa north of the Sahara and, by the end of the period, documentation is also beginning to appear for parts of sub-Saharan Africa. North of the Sahara, this situation arises since Africans were sharing in the major civilizations of the Mediterranean world. It is shown that these northern Africans were not simply passive recipients of Phoenician, Greek, Roman and Arab influences, or of the great religions and cultures of Judaism, Christianity and Islam coming from the Semitic world. They adapted these things to their own particular needs and purposes, and sometimes too contributed to their general development. But the North African civilization failed to make headway south of the Sahara. The agricultural crops that sustained it were unsuited to the tropics: the growth of populations large enough to secure effective mobilization of resources therefore depended on the development of new crops by Sudanic cultivators immediately south of the Sahara. When this had been done, the foundations were laid for a wholly African civilization and, by the end of the period, the Bantu expansion had brought almost all the southern half of the continent within its sphere.
  

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Contents

Introduction
1
The legacy of prehistory an essay on the background to the individuality of Africa culture
11
Mans prehuman ancestors and the earliest hominids
16
Behaviour patterning of the PlioPleistocene toolmakers
24
Homo erectus and the Acheulian Industrial Complex
30
The Middle PalaeolithicMiddle Stone Age
35
Upper Palaecolithic and epiPalaeolithic traditions in northern Africa and Later Stone Age complexes south of the Sahara
54
African physical populations and the origin of races
67
The spread of ironworking
359
The Early Iron Age in East Africa
366
The Early Iron Age in Zambia and Malawi
374
The Early Iron Age of southern Africa
386
Problems of western Central Africa
397
Conclusions
406
The Christian period in Mediterranean Africa c AD 200 to 700
410
The early years of the Church in Egypt and Cyrenaica
412

The African Neolithic and origins of domestication
70
Conclusion
82
North Africa in the period of Phoenician and Greek colonization c 800 to 323 BC
87
the Saite Dynasty in Egypt 663 to 525 BC
89
Persian rule in Egypt 525 to 404 BC
98
The last native dynasties and the establishment of Greek rule in Egypt 404 to 323 BC
105
The Greek colonization of Cyrenaica the Battiadai c 639 to c 439 BC and The Republic c 439 to 322 BC
107
Greek and Libyans
114
Phoenician colonization in North Africa Carthage and its empire
116
Carthage and subSaharan Africa
133
The Libyans
140
North Africa in the Hellenistic and Roman periods 323 BC to AD 305
148
Cyrencaica under Ptolemaic rule
164
The fall of Carthage 264 to 146 BC
167
The Berber kingdoms of North Africa c 250 BC to AD 40
176
The Roman empire in Africa
191
Egypt and Cyrenaica under Roman rule
193
Tripolitania and NorthWest Africa under Roman rule
199
Becline and reorganization of the Roman empire in the third century AD
205
The Nilotic Sudan and Ethiopia c 660 BC to c AD 600
210
Meroe from c 300 BC to the Roman invasion
226
Meroe and the Roman Empire
245
The later culture of Meroe
252
The rise of Aksum
259
The end of Meroe
265
TransSaharan contacts and the Iron Age in West Africa
272
horses chariots and the introduction of the camel
277
The failure to make maritime contact with West Africa
292
Early food production in the Sahara and the western Sudan
301
the transition from the Late Stone Age to the Iron Age in West Africa
318
The peoples of West Africa during the Early Iron Age
335
The emergence of Bantu Africa
342
The classification of Bantu
353
From Nicaea to Chalcedon
427
The consolidation of the Coptic Church in Egypt and NorthEast Africa
447
The early of the Church in NorthWest Africa
451
The Donatists
467
Augustine and the Catholic revival
473
The Vandal invasion and the eclipse of Christianity in NorthWest Africa
478
The Arab conquest and the rise of Islam in North Africa
490
The Arab occupation of Egypt
495
The advance into the Maghrib
505
The fall of the Umayyads
513
Statesmen and scholars
522
The ninth century AD
533
Islamization and arabization
544
Christian Nubia
556
The beginnings of Christianity in Nubia
559
The first Arab attacks
564
The flowering of Christian Nubia c 7501050
569
Late Christian time c 11601400
583
The Fatimid revolution 861973 and its aftermath in North Africa
589
The establishment of the Fatimids
602
Circumstances leading up to the conquest of Egypt
611
The Zirid succession
623
The abandonment of Kairouan
633
The Sahara and the Sudan from the Arab conquest of the Maghrip to the rise of the Almoravids
637
The Ṣanhāja and the Almoravida
651
Ghana
665
Takrur
675
Gao and the Songhay
677
The Zaghāwa and Kanem
680
Bibliography essays
685
Bibliography
719
Index
771
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