The Arctic Climate System
The Arctic can be viewed as an integrated system, characterised by intimate couplings between its atmosphere, ocean and land, linked in turn to the larger global system. This comprehensive, up-to-date assessment begins with an outline of early Arctic exploration and the growth of modern research. Using an integrated systems approach, subsequent chapters examine the atmospheric heat budget and circulation, the surface energy budget, the hydrologic cycle and interactions between the ocean, atmosphere and sea ice cover. Reviews of recent directions in numerical modelling and the characteristics of past Arctic climates set the stage for detailed discussion of recent climate variability and trends, and projected future states. Throughout, satellite remote sensing data and results from recent major field programs are used to illustrate key processes. The Arctic Climate System provides a comprehensive and accessible overview of the subject for researchers and advanced students in a wide range of disciplines.
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Alaska albedo annual mean anomalies Arctic climate Arctic Ocean areas associated Atlantic sector atmospheric average Basin Beaufort Sea budget Canadian Arctic Archipelago central Arctic central Arctic Ocean changes Chapter circulation cloud cover coast cooling cyclone discharge downwelling drift ecosystems Ellesmere Island energy estimates etal Eurasia feedbacks fields Figure freshwater glacial global Greenland Ice Sheet heat flux ice core ice extent ice motion ice thickness Icelandic Low increase Island land latent heat latitudes Laurentide Ice Sheet layer longwave radiation maximum mean annual cycle melt meridional NCEP/NCAR negative North Atlantic Northern Hemisphere observed period permafrost permission of AMS polar poleward precipitation radiative region river runoff salinity satellite sea ice sea ice cover season sensible heat Serreze Siberian simulations snow cover solar radiation stations Strait stratosphere summer surface albedo temperature gradient transport trends troposphere tundra vapor variability vertical vortex warming wind winter zonal