A system of logic, ratiocinative and inductive: being a connected view of the principles of evidence and the methods of scientific investigation, Volume 1 (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Parker, 1862 - Knowledge, Theory of
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Contents

Of the necessity of commencing with an Analysis of Language 1 Theory of names why a necessary part of logic
17
First step in the analysis of Propositions
21
Of Names 1 Names are names of things not of our ideas
23
Words which are not names but parts of names
24
General and Singular names
26
Concrete and Abstract
29
Connotative and Nonconnotative
31
Of Inference or Seasoning in general PAGE
36
Positive and Negative
42
Relative and Absolute
44
Univocal and Equivocal
47
Categories of Aristotle
49
Ambiguity of the most general names
51
Peelings must be distinguished from their physical antece dents Perceptions what
56
Volitions and Actions what
60
Body
61
Mind
67
Qualities
69
Eelations
72
Resemblance
75
Quantity
78
All attributes of bodies are grounded on states of con sciousness
79
So also all attributes of mind
80
Eecapitulation
82
Of Propositions 1 Nature and office of the copula
85
Affirmative and Negative propositions
87
Simple and Complex
89
Universal Particular and Singular
93
Of the Import of Propositions 1 Doctrine that a proposition is the expression of a relation between two ideas
96
Doctrine that it is the expression of a relation between the meanings of two names
99
Doctrine that it consists in referring something to or ex cluding something from a class
103
What it really is
107
It asserts or denies a sequence a coexistence a simple existence a causation
116
Propositions of which the terms are abstract
117
Of Propositions merely Verbal PAGE 1 Essential and Accidental propositions
119
All essential propositions are identical propositions
120
Individuals have no essences
125
Real propositions how distinguished from verbal
127
Two modes of representing the import of a Eeal proposition
128
Of the Nature of Classification and the Five Predicables 1 Classification how connected with Naming
131
The Predicables what
133
Kinds have a real existence in nature
136
Differentia
141
Differentia for general purposes and differential for special or technical purposes
143
Proprium
146
Accidens
148
A definition what
150
Every name can be defined whose meaning is susceptible of analysis
152
Analysis of the Syllogism
188
The dictum de omni not the foundation of reasoning but a mere identical proposition
195
What is the really fundamental axiom of Ratiocination
200
The other form of the axiom
203
Of the Functions and Logical Value of the Syllogism 1 Is the syllogism a petitio principii?
206
Insufficiency of the common theory
207
All inference is from particulars to particulars
209
General propositions are a record of such inferences and the rules of the syllogism are rules for the interpretation of the record
219
The syllogism not the type of reasoning but a test of it
222
The true type what
226
Relation between Induction and Deduction
230
Objections answered
231
Of Trains of Reasoning and Deductive Sciences 1 For what purpose trains of reasoning exist
237
from particulars to particulars through marks of marks
240
Why there are deductive sciences
243
Why other sciences still remain experimental
247
Experimental sciences may become deductive by the pro gress of experiment
249
In what manner this usually takes place
250
The same Subject continued
284
In what sense hypothetical
291
The test of inconceivability does not represent the aggre
300
Sir W Hamiltons opinion on the Principles of Contra
307
Preliminary Observations on Induction in general
313
Of Inductions improperly so called
319
Axiom of the uniformity of the course of nature
341
Of Laws of Nature
352
Of the Law of Universal Causation
360
Of the Composition of Causes
405
Of Observation and Experiment
414
Method of Agreement
425
Method of Difference 3 Mutual relation of these two methods 4 Joint Method of Agreement and Difference
435
Method of Residues 6 Method of Concomitant Variations 7 Limitations of this last method 426 428 429 433
436
Miscellaneous Examples of the Four Methods 1 Li el jigs theory of metallic poisons
449
Theory of inductive electricity
453
Dr Wellstheory of dew
457
Examples of the Method of Residues
469
Of Plurality of Causes and of the Intermixture of Effects 5 L One effect may hare several causes
475
which is the source of a characteristic imperfection of the Method of Agreement
477
Plurality of Causes how ascertained
480
Concurrence of Causes which do not compound their effects
482
Difficulties of the investigation when causes compound their effects
489
Three modes of investigating the laws of complex effects
492
The method of simple observation inapplicable
493
The purely experimental method inapplicable
494
Of the Deductive Method 1 First stage ascertainment of the laws of the separate causes by direct induction
499
Second stage ratiocination from the simple laws of the complex cases
508
PAGE
510
Miscellaneous Examples of the Explanation
521

Common terms and phrases

Popular passages

Page 437 - Subduct from any phenomenon such part as is known by previous inductions to be the effect of certain antecedents, and the residue of the phenomenon is the effect of the remaining antecedents.
Page 429 - If an instance in which the phenomenon under investigation occurs, and an instance in which it does not occur, have every circumstance in common save one, that one occurring only in the former; the circumstance in which alone the two instances differ is the effect, or the cause, or an indispensable part of the cause, of the phenomenon.
Page 207 - All men are mortal. Socrates is a man ; THEREFORE Socrates is mortal" it is unanswerably urged by the adversaries of the syllogistic theory, that the proposition, Socrates is mortal...
Page 435 - If two or more instances in which the phenomenon occurs have only one circumstance in common, while two or more instances in which it does not occur have nothing in common save the absence of that circumstance, the circumstance in which alone the two sets of instances differ is the effect, or the cause, or an indispensable part of the cause, of the phenomenon.
Page 364 - To certain facts, certain facts always do, and, as we believe, will continue to, succeed. The invariable antecedent is termed the cause ; the invariable consequent the effect. And the universality of the law of causation consists in this, that every consequent is connected in this manner with some particular antecedent or set of antecedents.
Page 342 - Whatever be the most proper mode of expressing it, the proposition that the course of nature is uniform is the fundamental principle, or general axiom, of Induction. It would yet be a great error to offer this large generalisation as any explanation of the inductive process. On the contrary, I hold it to be itself an instance of induction, and induction by no means of the most obvious kind. Far from being the first induction we make, it is one of the last...
Page 350 - Why is a single instance, in some cases, sufficient for a complete induction ; while in others, myriads of concurring instances, without a single exception known or presumed, go such a very little way towards establishing a universal proposition ? Whoever can answer this question, knows more of the philosophy of logic than the wisest of the ancients, and has solved the problem of induction.
Page 471 - The business of Inductive Logic is to provide rules and models (such as the Syllogism and its rules are for ratiocination) to which if inductive arguments conform, those arguments are conclusive, and not otherwise.
Page 150 - The simplest and most correct notion of a Definition is, a proposition declaratory of the meaning of a word...
Page 197 - Nevertheless, neither the dictum de omni et nutto " that whatever can be affirmed (or denied) of a class may be affirmed (or denied) of everything included in the class;

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