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action alcohol alloy aluminium ammonia ammonium antimony arsenic atomic weight barium boiling point bromine burned calcium called carbon dioxide cent Chemical conduct chlorate coal colloidal color colorless combine combustion composition compounds concentration containing copper crystalline crystals decomposed decomposition density dilute dissolved electrical electrolyte elements energy equilibrium evolved following equation formula furnace gases glass heat hydrate hydrochloric acid hydrogen chloride hydrogen sulfide insoluble iodine ionization ions iron known liquid magnesium manganese manufacture matter mercury metals method mineral mixture molecules nitrate nitric acid nitrogen obtained ordinary oxidizing agent oxygen percentage phosphorus platinum potassium potassium chlorate powder precipitate prepared present pressure properties pure quantities reaction readily reducing agent resulting salts silicates silicon silver sodium carbonate sodium chloride sodium hydroxide solid soluble in water solution solvent substance sulfate sulfur dioxide sulfuric acid takes place temperature tion tube valence vapor volume zinc
Page 65 - Avogadro's principle or hypothesis, which states that equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules, was the extension of Dalton's Atomic Theory necessary to put the theoretical interpretation of chemistry on a solid foundation.
Page 158 - ... from direct photographs. The region is homogeneous and the general order of the mean density is known. The next — and last — property to be discussed, the velocity-distance relation, emerged from the study of spectrograms. When a ray of light passes through a glass prism (or other suitable device) the various colors of which the light is composed are spread out in an ordered sequence called a spectrum. The rainbow is, of course, a familiar example. The sequence never varies. The spectrum...
Page 51 - With air or oxygen, hydrogen forms a highly explosive mixture, especially in the proportion of two volumes of hydrogen to one volume of oxygen.
Page 658 - Silver oxide is thrown down as a dark brown, amorphous precipitate when a soluble hydroxide is added to a solution of a silver salt, the hydroxide at first formed spontaneously decomposing into water and the oxide.
Page 8 - The heat energy of a body is measured by observing to what extent this body will change the temperature of a given mass of some standard substance. Water has been chosen as the standard, and the unit of heat...
Page 58 - Similarly, if we diminish the pressure by one-half, the volume will double. This effect was first studied by Robert Boyle (1660) who, by careful measurement, found that the volume which a given mass of a gaseous substance occupies is inversely proportional to the pressure under which it is measured, provided the temperature remains constant.
Page 16 - It is quite possible to prepare, from either elements or compounds, or both, a body which is not itself a compound but is merely a mixture. Ordinary concrete is such a material, for in a broken piece it is easy to identify the crushed stone, the sand, and the cement which compose it.
Page 279 - ... studies we found that, if we heated a liquid to a definite temperature in a closed space, a condition of equilibrium is soon reached in which there is set up a constant pressure called the vapor pressure. This unchanging pressure at a constant temperature is due to the fact that the rate at which the molecules leave the liquid is just balanced by the rate of their return to it. In this case it must be stressed again that the condition is not one of rest but one of motion. When there is a chemical...
Page 27 - ... 118 C ( — 180 F). Oxygen is only slightly soluble in water (3.1 volumes of the gas in 100 volumes of water at 20 C) but this is a very important property as fish obtain oxygen from that dissolved in water. These are all specific physical properties of oxygen. Oxidation. By means of certain experiments it is possible to show that the action of oxygen upon another element consists in the union . of the two elements to form a compound. Thus, when sulfur burns in oxygen, a new gaseous compound...